Ugu is a leafy vegetable which is used in Nigeria for both culinary and medicinal purposes. It is Rich in minerals such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron and folic acid which makes it highly nutritious. It is also a good source Of vitamins A, C and, k and lots of minerals. Researchers also found out that eating meals rich in fluted pumpkin leaves and seeds helps prevent Cancer, Improves blood count, Beats diabetes, Reduce blood glucose & Cholesterol levels. it’s Used for soups like Efo Rir

IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA AND IT SYMPTOMS

let we talk about iron Deficiency ANEMIA and it symptoms.

Iron Deficiency Anemia

Medically reviewed by Shuvani Sanyal, MD on July 17, 2017 — Written by Jacquelyn Cafasso and Rachel Nall

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What is iron deficiency anemia?

Anemia occurs when you have a decreased level of hemoglobin in your red blood cells (RBCs). Hemoglobin is the protein in your RBCs that is responsible for carrying oxygen to your tissues.

Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia, and it occurs when your body doesn’t have enough of the mineral iron. Your body needs iron to make hemoglobin. When there isn’t enough iron in your blood stream, the rest of your body can’t get the amount of oxygen it needs.

While the condition may be common, many people don’t know they have iron deficiency anemia. It’s possible to experience the symptoms for years without ever knowing the cause.

In women of childbearing age, the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia is a loss of iron in the blood due to heavy menstruation or pregnancy. A poor diet or certain intestinal diseases that affect how the body absorbs iron can also cause iron deficiency anemia.

Doctors normally treat the condition with iron supplements or changes to diet.

Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia

The symptoms of iron deficiency anemia can be mild at first, and you may not even notice them. According to the American Society of Hematology (ASH), most people don’t realize they have mild anemia until they have a routine blood test.

The symptoms of moderate to severe iron deficiency anemia include:

Causes of iron deficiency anemia

According to the ASH, iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia. There are many reasons why a person might become deficient in iron. These include:

Inadequate iron intake

Eating too little iron over an extended amount of time can cause a shortage in your body. Foods such as meat, eggs, and some green leafy vegetables are high in iron. Because iron is essential during times of rapid growth and development, pregnant women and young children may need even more iron-rich foods in their diet.

Pregnancy or blood loss due to menstruation

Heavy menstrual bleeding and blood loss during childbirth are the most common causes of iron deficiency anemia in women of childbearing age.

Internal bleeding

Certain medical conditions can cause internal bleeding, which can lead to iron deficiency anemia. Examples include anulcer in your stomach, polyps in the colonor intestines, or colon cancer. Regular use of pain relievers, such as aspirin, can also cause bleeding in the stomach.

Read more: Learn about cytopenia and anemia’s relationship »

Inability to absorb iron

Certain disorders or surgeries that affect the intestines can also interfere with how your body absorbs iron. Even if you get enough iron in your diet, celiac disease or intestinal surgery such as gastric bypass may limit the amount of iron your body can absorb.

Endometriosis

If a woman has endometriosis she may have heavy blood loss that she can not see because it is hidden in the abdominal or pelvic area.

Risk factors

Anemia is a common condition and can occur in both men and women of any age and from any ethnic group. Some people may be at greater risk of iron deficiency anemia than others, including:

  • women of childbearing age
  • pregnant women
  • people with poor diets
  • people who donate blood frequently
  • infants and children, especially thoseborn prematurely or experiencing a growth spurt
  • vegetarians who don’t replace meat with another iron-rich food

If you’re at risk of iron deficiency anemia, talk to your doctor to determine if blood testing or dietary changes could benefit you.

How it’s diagnosed

A doctor can diagnose anemia with blood tests. These include:

Complete blood cell (CBC) test

complete blood count (CBC) is usually the first test a doctor will use. A CBC measures the amount of all components in the blood, including:

The CBC provides information about your blood that is helpful in diagnosing iron deficiency anemia. This information includes:

  • the hematocrit level, which is the percent of blood volume that is made up of RBCs
  • the hemoglobin level
  • the size of your RBCs

A normal hematocrit range is 34.9 to 44.5 percent for adult women and 38.8 to 50 percent for adult men. The normal hemoglobin range is 12.0 to 15.5 grams per deciliter for an adult woman and 13.5 to 17.5 grams per deciliter for an adult man.

In iron deficiency anemia, the hematocrit and hemoglobin levels are low. Also, RBCs are usually smaller in size than normal.

A CBC test is often performed as part of a routine physical examination. It’s a good indicator of a person’s overall health. It may also be performed routinely before a surgery. This test is useful to diagnose this type of anemia because most people who have an iron deficiency don’t realize it.

Other tests

Anemia can usually be confirmed with a CBC test. Your doctor might order additional blood tests to determine how severe your anemia is and help determine treatments. They may also examine your blood through a microscope. These blood tests will provide information, including:

Ferritin is a protein that helps with iron storage in your body. Low levels of ferritin indicate low iron storage. A TIBC test is used to determine the amount transferrin that’s carrying iron. Transferrin is a protein that transports iron.

Tests for internal bleeding

If your doctor is concerned that internal bleeding is causing your anemia, additional tests may be needed. One test you may have is fecal occult test to look for blood in your feces. Blood in your feces may indicate bleeding in your intestine.

Your doctor may also perform anendoscopy, in which they use a small camera on a flexible tube to view the linings of your gastrointestinal tract. AnEGD test, or upper endoscopy, allows a doctor to examine the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and the upper part of the small intestine. A colonoscopy, or lower endoscopy, allows a doctor to examine the lining of the colon, which is the lower portion of the large intestine. These tests can help identify sources ofgastrointestinal bleeding.

Iron deficiency anemia in women

Pregnancy, significant menstrual bleeding, and uterine fibroids are all reasons why women are more likely to experience iron deficiency anemia.

Heavy menstrual bleeding occurs when a woman bleeds more or longer than women typically bleed during menstruation. According to the Centers for Disease Control and PreventionTrusted Source, typical menstrual bleeding lasts for 4 to 5 days and the amount of blood lost ranges from 2 to 3 tablespoons. Women with excess menstrual bleeding typically bleed for more than seven days and lose twice as much blood as normal.

According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood InstituteTrusted Source, an estimated 20 percent of women of childbearing age have iron deficiency anemia. Pregnant women are even more likely to have iron deficiency anemia because they require greater amounts of blood to support their growing babies.

A pelvic ultrasound can help a doctor look for the source of excess bleeding during a woman’s period, such as fibroids. Like iron deficiency anemia, uterine fibroids often don’t cause symptoms. They occur when muscular tumors grow in the uterus. While they’re not usually cancerous, they can cause heavy menstrual bleeding that can lead to iron deficiency anemia.

Health complications of iron deficiency anemia

Most cases of iron deficiency anemia are mild and don’t cause complications. The condition can usually be corrected easily. However, if anemia or iron deficiency is left untreated, it can lead to other health problems. These include:

Rapid or irregular heartbeat

When you’re anemic, your heart has to pump more blood to make up for the low amount of oxygen. This can lead to irregular heartbeat. In severe cases, it can lead to heart failure or an enlarged heart.

Pregnancy complications

In severe cases of iron deficiency, a child may be born prematurely or with a low birth weight. Most pregnant women take iron supplements as part of their prenatal care to prevent this from happening.

Delayed growth in infants and children

Infants and children who are severely deficient in iron may experience delayed growth and development. They may also be more prone to infections.

Treatment options

Iron supplements

Iron tablets can help restore iron levels in your body. If possible, you should take iron tablets on an empty stomach, which helps the body absorb them better. If they upset your stomach, you can take them with meals. You may need to take the supplements for several months. Iron supplements may cause constipation or black stools.

Diet

Diets that include the following foods can help treat or prevent iron deficiency:

  • red meat
  • dark green, leafy vegetables
  • dried fruits
  • nuts
  • iron-fortified cereals

Additionally, vitamin C helps your body absorb iron. If you’re taking iron tablets, a doctor might suggest taking the tablets along with a source of vitamin C, such as a glass of orange juice or citrus fruit.

Treating the underlying cause of bleeding

Iron supplements won’t help if excess bleeding causes the deficiency. A doctor may prescribe birth control pills to women who have heavy periods. This can reduce the amount of menstrual bleeding each month.

In the most severe cases, a blood transfusion can replace iron and blood loss quickly.

Prevention

When caused by inadequate iron intake, iron deficiency anemia can be prevented by eating a diet high in iron-rich foods and vitamin C. Mothers should make sure to feed their babies breast milk or iron-fortified infant formula.

Foods high in iron include:

  • meat, such as lamb, pork, chicken, and beef
  • beans
  • pumpkin and squash seeds
  • leafy greens, such as spinach
  • raisins and other dried fruit
  • eggs
  • seafood, such as clams, sardines, shrimp, and oysters
  • iron-fortified dry and instant cereals

Foods high in vitamin C include:

  • fruits such as oranges, grapefruits, strawberries, kiwis, guavas, papayas, pineapples, melons, and mangoes
  • broccoli
  • red and green bell peppers
  • Brussels sprouts
  • cauliflower
  • tomatoes
  • leafy greens

Outlook for iron deficiency anemia

Diagnosing and treating iron deficiency anemia by yourself can result in adverse health effects due to too much iron in your blood. The complications from too much iron in your blood include liver damageand constipation. If you have symptoms of iron deficiency anemia, talk to your doctor instead.

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RICKET AND ITS SYMPTOMS

Rickets

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What is rickets?

Rickets is a skeletal disorder that’s caused by a lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. These nutrients are important for the development of strong, healthy bones. People with rickets may have weak and soft bones, stunted growth, and, in severe cases, skeletal deformities.

Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium and phosphate from your intestines. You can get vitamin D from various food products, including milk, eggs, and fish. Your body also produces the vitamin when you’re exposed to sunlight.

A vitamin D deficiency makes it difficult for your body to maintain sufficient levels of calcium and phosphate. When this occurs, your body produces hormones that cause calcium and phosphate to be released from your bones. When your bones lack these minerals, they become weak and soft.

Rickets is most common in children who are between 6 and 36 months old. Children are at the highest risk of rickets because they’re still growing. Children might not get enough vitamin D if they live in a region with little sunlight, follow a vegetarian diet, or don’t drink milk products. In some cases, the condition is hereditary.

Rickets is rare in the United States. Rickets used to be more common, but it mostly disappeared in developed countries during the 1940s due to the introduction of fortified foods, such as cereals with added vitamin D.

Who is at risk for developing rickets?

Risk factors for rickets include the following:

Age

Rickets is most common in children who are between 6 and 36 months old. During this time period, children usually experience rapid growth. This is when their bodies need the most calcium and phosphate to strengthen and develop their bones.

Diet

You have a higher risk of developing rickets if you eat a vegetarian diet that doesn’t include fish, eggs, or milk. You’re also at an increased risk if you have trouble digesting milk or have an allergy to milk sugar (lactose). Infants who are only fed breast milk can become deficient in vitamin D as well. Breast milk doesn’t contain enough vitamin D to prevent rickets.

Skin color

Children of African, Pacific Islander, and Middle Eastern descent are at the highest risk for rickets because they have dark skin. Dark skin doesn’t react as strongly to sunlight as lighter skin does, so it produces less vitamin D.

Geographic location

Our bodies produce more vitamin D when they’re exposed to sunshine, so you’re more at risk for rickets if you live in an area with little sunlight. You’re also at a higher risk if you work indoors during daylight hours.

Genes

One form of rickets can be inherited. This means that the disorder is passed down through your genes. This type of rickets, called hereditary rickets, prevents your kidneys from absorbing phosphate.

What are the symptoms of rickets?

Symptoms of rickets include:

  • pain or tenderness in the bones of the arms, legs, pelvis, or spine
  • stunted growth and short stature
  • bone fractures
  • muscle cramps
  • teeth deformities, such as:
    • delayed tooth formation
    • holes in the enamel
    • abscesses
    • defects in the tooth structure
    • an increased number of cavities
  • skeletal deformities, including:
    • an oddly shaped skull
    • bowlegs, or legs that bow out
    • bumps in the ribcage
    • a protruding breastbone
    • a curved spine
    • pelvic deformities

Call your doctor right away if your child is showing signs of rickets. If the disorder isn’t treated during a child’s growth period, the child may end up with a very short stature as an adult. Deformities can also become permanent if the disorder goes untreated.

How is rickets diagnosed?

Your doctor may be able to diagnose rickets by performing a physical examination. They will check for tenderness or pain in the bones by lightly pressing on them. Your doctor may also order certain tests to help make a rickets diagnosis, including:

  • blood tests to measure the levels of calcium and phosphate in the blood
  • bone X-rays to check for bone deformities

In rare cases, a bone biopsy will be performed. This involves the removal of a very small section of bone, which will be sent to a laboratory for analysis.

How is rickets treated?

Treatment for rickets focuses on replacing the missing vitamin or mineral in the body. This will eliminate most of the symptoms associated with rickets. If your child has a vitamin D deficiency, your doctor will likely want them to increase their exposure to sunlight, if possible. They will also encourage them to consume food products high in vitamin D, such as fish, liver, milk, and eggs.

Calcium and vitamin D supplements can also be used to treat rickets. Ask your doctor about the correct dosage, as it can vary based on the size of your child. Too much vitamin D or calcium can be unsafe.

If skeletal deformities are present, your child may need braces to position their bones correctly as they grow. In severe cases, your child may need corrective surgery.

For hereditary rickets, a combination of phosphate supplements and high levels of a special form of vitamin D are required to treat the disease.

What can be expected after treatment for rickets?

Increasing vitamin D, calcium, and phosphate levels will help correct the disorder. Most children with rickets see improvements in about one week.

Skeletal deformities will often improve or disappear over time if rickets is corrected while the child is still young. However, skeletal deformities can become permanent if the disorder isn’t treated during a child’s growth period.

How can rickets be prevented?

The best way to prevent rickets is to eat a diet that includes adequate amounts of calcium, phosphorous, and vitamin D. People with kidney disorders should have their calcium and phosphate levels monitored on a regular basis by their doctors.

Rickets can also be prevented with moderate sun exposure. According to theNational Health Service of England (NHS), you only need to expose your hands and face to sunlight a few times a week during the spring and summer months to prevent rickets.

Most adults get enough exposure to sunlight. It’s important to note that too much sunlight can damage your skin, andsunscreen should be applied to prevent burns and skin damage. Sometimes, the use of sunscreen can prevent your skin from producing vitamin D, so it’s beneficial to eat foods that contain vitamin D or to take vitamin D supplements. These preventive measures can significantly lower your risk of developing rickets.

PILE AND IT SYMPTOMS

Piles (haemorrhoids) are enlarged blood vessels that you can get inside or around your anus. They’re usually small, round, discoloured lumps. You might be able to feel them on your anus or hanging down from your anal canal. Your anal canal is the short, muscular tube with blood vessels that connects your rectum (back passage) with your anus.

It’s completely normal to have blood vessels in your anus – they have an important role to play in continence. But piles are when they get enlarged, which can cause symptoms.

Prevention

Piles (haemorrhoids)

Piles (haemorrhoids) are enlarged blood vessels that you can get inside or around your anus. They’re usually small, round, discoloured lumps. You might be able to feel them on your anus or hanging down from your anal canal. Your anal canal is the short, muscular tube with blood vessels that connects your rectum (back passage) with your anus.

It’s completely normal to have blood vessels in your anus – they have an important role to play in continence. But piles are when they get enlarged, which can cause symptoms.

About piles

Anyone can get piles, but they are more common as you get older. They are also more common if you often get constipated, or find you are spending long periods of time in the toilet, straining to open your bowels.

It’s difficult to know exactly how many people get piles as many people don’t go and see their doctor about them.

Piles are also common during and after pregnancy. They may develop due to changes in your hormones and the higher pressure in your tummy (abdomen) when you’re pregnant. They usually get better once your baby is born.

Types of piles

Internal piles start inside your anal canal, but they might hang down and come out your anus. They’re graded according to whether they come out, and if so, how far they come out – this is a general classification and the symptoms can vary between individuals.

  • First degree piles may bleed but don’t come out of your anus.
  • Second degree piles come out of your anus when you have a bowel movement, but go back inside on their own afterwards.
  • Third degree piles come out of your anus and only go back inside if you physically push them back in.
  • Fourth degree piles always hang down from your anus and you can’t push them back in. They can become very swollen and painful if the blood inside them clots.

External piles are swellings that develop further down your anal canal, closer to your anus. They can be really painful, especially if they have a blood clot in them.

It’s possible to have both internal and external piles at the same time.

An image showing the different grades of piles
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Symptoms of piles

Piles don’t always cause pain or other symptoms, but if you do have symptoms, they might include:

  • bleeding when you have a bowel movement – you may see blood (usually bright red) on toilet paper or drips in the toilet or on the surface of your poo
  • a lump in or around your anus
  • a slimy discharge of mucus from your anus
  • a feeling of ‘fullness’ and discomfort in your anus, or a feeling that your bowels haven’t completely emptied after going to the toilet
  • itchy or sore skin around your anus
  • pain and discomfort after you go to the toilet

These symptoms can vary a lot between individuals. They may also be caused by problems other than piles, such as inflammatory bowel disease, anal cancer,bowel cancer and an anal fissure (tear). So if you have any of these symptoms, contact your GP for advice – don’t just assume they’re being caused by piles.

Diagnosis of piles

If you go and see your GP, they’ll ask about your symptoms and examine you. They may gently put their finger into your anus to feel your rectum (they’ll wear gloves). If needed, your GP may refer you to a specialist to look inside your rectum. They’ll do this using a short, rigid tube-like instrument called a proctoscope.

You might need to have a blood test to check if you have anaemia if you have a lot of bleeding. Anaemia is when you have a low number of red blood cells in your blood. Anaemia can be a sign that you have a more serious condition.

If your symptoms, examinations or test results suggest your symptoms might be caused by something else, your GP may refer you to hospital for more tests. These can rule out other conditions, such as bowel cancer.

Self-help for piles

Sometimes piles can be improved by making a few changes to your diet and lifestyle. There are a number of things that you can do to help.

  • Eat a high-fibre diet to help make your poo softer and easier to pass. This will help to reduce the pressure on the veins in your anus caused by straining when you have a bowel movement. Learn more about fibre and which foods to eat to up your fibre intake.
  • Drink enough fluids to keep hydratedbut don’t have too much caffeinated ones like tea and coffee.
  • Try not to strain when you’re going to the toilet. Afterwards, gently clean around your anus with water and pat the area dry.

Diet changes such as increasing fibre and drinking enough fluids are known to help. Lots of people wonder if eating spicy foods makes their symptoms worse. However, there isn’t any scientific evidence to suggest this is the case, so you shouldn’t need to start cutting things out of your diet, unless your doctor advises you to.

Treatment of piles

It can be uncomfortable if you have piles and it’s understandable if they make you feel a bit self-conscious. They might have an effect on other areas of your life, such as your sex life if your piles hang out or you have some discharge. But try not to worry – the symptoms usually get better within a month and the piles shrink back, although they might come back. In the meantime, there are plenty of treatments that can relieve your symptoms. If you have mild intermittent bleeding from piles, changing your diet and lifestyle to prevent constipation may be all that you need for things to get better. See our Self-help section above for more information.

Medicines for treating piles

There’s a range of medicines that can help to relieve the symptoms of piles. Ask your pharmacist for advice and always read the patient information leaflet that comes with your medicine.

  • If you’re passing hard poo, a fibre supplement such as ispaghula husk (eg Fybogel) or mild laxative such as lactulose will soften it.
  • Over-the-counter painkillers, such as paracetamol, may help to ease any pain from piles. Don’t take painkillers that have an opioid in them (like codeine), as these could make you constipated.
  • Soothing pile creams, ointments and suppositories may ease any pain and itchiness. There are lots of different products available over the counter. Some contain a local anaesthetic such as lidocaine.
  • Products that contain corticosteroids, such as Anusol HC and Proctosedyl, may reduce swelling and pain. Don’t use these for more than a week as they can damage the skin around your anus. Most are available over-the-counter and others on prescription.

It can sometimes take up to a month for self-help measures and medicines to work. If your symptoms don’t improve after this time, contact your GP. They may refer you to a specialist.

Non-surgical treatments for piles

Piles will usually go away on their own but if they don’t, you might need to have a procedure to deal with the problem. There are some treatments that you’ll need to go into hospital for as an out-patient. This means you can have the treatment and go home the same day.

  • Banding. In this procedure, your doctor will put a small elastic band around the pile, which will reduce the blood supply. This causes the pile to die and fall off after a week or two. The area left behind will heal naturally.
  • Sclerotherapy. Your doctor will inject an oily solution into your piles, which makes them shrivel up.
  • Bipolar diathermy and direct current electrotherapy treatment. In this procedure, your doctor will use an electrical current to destroy the pile.

Your doctor will let you know the benefits and risks of each procedure and which is the best option for you.

Surgery for piles

Most people don’t need an operation to treat piles. But if you still have symptoms of piles and other treatments haven’t worked, or your piles keep bleeding, it might be an appropriate option for you. There are different types of surgery for piles, which include the following.

  • Haemorrhoidectomy – this is a surgical procedure to remove piles if they’re causing problems.
  • Stapled haemorrhoidopexy – in this operation, your surgeon will attach the area of tissue with piles higher up your anal canal and staple it in place. Your piles then won’t come out your anus anymore and will shrink.
  • Haemorrhoidal artery ligation operation (known as HALO). During this procedure, arteries in your anal canal are stitched closed to limit the blood supply to your piles. Sometimes an ultrasound probe will be used to help find your arteries and guide your surgeon during the procedure. Experts aren’t yet sure how well this procedure works.

Causes of piles

Piles develop when the veins in your anal canal become swollen, which may happen for a number of reasons, such as:

  • if you strain when you go to the toilet, for example if you have constipation or long-lasting diarrhoea
  • getting older – your anal canal weakens with age, which makes piles more likely
  • having a persistent cough
  • lifting heavy objects

Piles are also common during pregnancy. They may develop due to changes in your hormones and the higher pressure in your tummy (abdomen) when you’re pregnant. They usually get better after you give birth.

Some people wonder if there’s a link between stress and piles, but there’s no evidence to suggest stress causes piles. Having piles and having symptoms, though, can be potentially stressful for some people.

Another popular question is whether you’re more likely to get piles around the time of your period. There’s currently no evidence to support this, so there’s no reason to think that you’ll get piles during your period.

Prevention of piles

Some healthy diet and lifestyle measures can help to keep your poo soft, which will help to prevent piles.

  • Eat plenty of fibre-rich foods.
  • Drink plenty of fluids but limit the caffeinated one

Symptoms of piles

Piles don’t always cause pain or other symptoms, but if you do have symptoms, they might include:

  • bleeding when you have a bowel movement – you may see blood (usually bright red) on toilet paper or drips in the toilet or on the surface of your poo
  • a lump in or around your anus
  • a slimy discharge of mucus from your anus
  • a feeling of ‘fullness’ and discomfort in your anus, or a feeling that your bowels haven’t completely emptied after going to the toilet
  • itchy or sore skin around your anus
  • pain and discomfort after you go to the toilet

These symptoms can vary a lot between individuals. They may also be caused by problems other than piles, such as inflammatory bowel disease, anal cancer,bowel cancer and an anal fissure (tear). So if you have any of these symptoms, contact your GP for advice – don’t just assume they’re being caused by piles.

Diagnosis of piles

If you go and see your GP, they’ll ask about your symptoms and examine you. They may gently put their finger into your anus to feel your rectum (they’ll wear gloves). If needed, your GP may refer you to a specialist to look inside your rectum. They’ll do this using a short, rigid tube-like instrument called a proctoscope.

You might need to have a blood test to check if you have anaemia if you have a lot of bleeding. Anaemia is when you have a low number of red blood cells in your blood. Anaemia can be a sign that you have a more serious condition.

If your symptoms, examinations or test results suggest your symptoms might be caused by something else, your GP may refer you to hospital for more tests. These can rule out other conditions, such as bowel cancer.

Self-help for piles

Sometimes piles can be improved by making a few changes to your diet and lifestyle. There are a number of things that you can do to help.

  • Eat a high-fibre diet to help make your poo softer and easier to pass. This will help to reduce the pressure on the veins in your anus caused by straining when you have a bowel movement. Learn more about fibre and which foods to eat to up your fibre intake.
  • Drink enough fluids to keep hydratedbut don’t have too much caffeinated ones like tea and coffee.
  • Try not to strain when you’re going to the toilet. Afterwards, gently clean around your anus with water and pat the area dry.

Diet changes such as increasing fibre and drinking enough fluids are known to help. Lots of people wonder if eating spicy foods makes their symptoms worse. However, there isn’t any scientific evidence to suggest this is the case, so you shouldn’t need to start cutting things out of your diet, unless your doctor advises you to.

It’s good to keep active and get your recommended amount of physical activity each day. There might be some activities that may make your symptoms more noticeable such as cycling; so, you may want to switch to something else for a while if you notice this. Generally, though, physical activity is good for your health and shouldn’t make your piles worse.

Treatment of piles

It can be uncomfortable if you have piles and it’s understandable if they make you feel a bit self-conscious. They might have an effect on other areas of your life, such as your sex life if your piles hang out or you have some discharge. But try not to worry – the symptoms usually get better within a month and the piles shrink back, although they might come back. In the meantime, there are plenty of treatments that can relieve your symptoms. If you have mild intermittent bleeding from piles, changing your diet and lifestyle to prevent constipation may be all that you need for things to get better. See our Self-help section above for more information.

Medicines for treating piles

There’s a range of medicines that can help to relieve the symptoms of piles. Ask your pharmacist for advice and always read the patient information leaflet that comes with your medicine.

  • If you’re passing hard poo, a fibre supplement such as ispaghula husk (eg Fybogel) or mild laxative such as lactulose will soften it.
  • Over-the-counter painkillers, such as paracetamol, may help to ease any pain from piles. Don’t take painkillers that have an opioid in them (like codeine), as these could make you constipated.
  • Soothing pile creams, ointments and suppositories may ease any pain and itchiness. There are lots of different products available over the counter. Some contain a local anaesthetic such as lidocaine.
  • Products that contain corticosteroids, such as Anusol HC and Proctosedyl, may reduce swelling and pain. Don’t use these for more than a week as they can damage the skin around your anus. Most are available over-the-counter and others on prescription.

It can sometimes take up to a month for self-help measures and medicines to work. If your symptoms don’t improve after this time, contact your GP. They may refer you to a specialist.

Non-surgical treatments for piles

Piles will usually go away on their own but if they don’t, you might need to have a procedure to deal with the problem. There are some treatments that you’ll need to go into hospital for as an out-patient. This means you can have the treatment and go home the same day.

  • Banding. In this procedure, your doctor will put a small elastic band around the pile, which will reduce the blood supply. This causes the pile to die and fall off after a week or two. The area left behind will heal naturally.
  • Sclerotherapy. Your doctor will inject an oily solution into your piles, which makes them shrivel up.
  • Bipolar diathermy and direct current electrotherapy treatment. In this procedure, your doctor will use an electrical current to destroy the pile.

Your doctor will let you know the benefits and risks of each procedure and which is the best option for you.

Surgery for piles

Most people don’t need an operation to treat piles. But if you still have symptoms of piles and other treatments haven’t worked, or your piles keep bleeding, it might be an appropriate option for you. There are different types of surgery for piles, which include the following.

  • Haemorrhoidectomy – this is a surgical procedure to remove piles if they’re causing problems.
  • Stapled haemorrhoidopexy – in this operation, your surgeon will attach the area of tissue with piles higher up your anal canal and staple it in place. Your piles then won’t come out your anus anymore and will shrink.
  • Haemorrhoidal artery ligation operation (known as HALO). During this procedure, arteries in your anal canal are stitched closed to limit the blood supply to your piles. Sometimes an ultrasound probe will be used to help find your arteries and guide your surgeon during the procedure. Experts aren’t yet sure how well this procedure works.

Causes of piles

Piles develop when the veins in your anal canal become swollen, which may happen for a number of reasons, such as:

  • if you strain when you go to the toilet, for example if you have constipation or long-lasting diarrhoea
  • getting older – your anal canal weakens with age, which makes piles more likely
  • having a persistent cough
  • lifting heavy objects

Piles are also common during pregnancy. They may develop due to changes in your hormones and the higher pressure in your tummy (abdomen) when you’re pregnant. They usually get better after you give birth.

Another popular question is whether you’re more likely to get piles around the time of your period. There’s currently no evidence to support this, so there’s no reason to think that you’ll get piles during your period.

Prevention of piles

Some healthy diet and lifestyle measures can help to keep your poo soft, which will help to prevent piles.

  • Eat plenty of fibre-rich foods.
  • Drink plenty of fluids but limit the caffeinated ones, such as tea and coffee.

You can get more tips in our topic:Constipation.

Complications of piles

Piles rarely cause any serious problems but sometimes they can lead to the following.

  • External piles (swellings that develop further down your anal canal, closer to your anus) can become inflamed and swollen; ulcers can also form on them.
  • Skin tags can form when the inside of a pile shrinks back but the skin remains. For more information, see our FAQ: Skin tags, below.
  • If mucus leaks from your anus, it can make the surrounding skin very sore.
  • Internal piles that prolapse (hang down) can sometimes get strangulated and lose their blood supply. If a blood clot forms (thrombosis), piles can be very painful. External piles can also become thrombosed.

HEPATITSIS

Hepatitis refers to an inflammatory condition of the liver. It’s commonly caused by a viral infection, but there are other possible causes of hepatitis. These include autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis that occurs as a secondary result of medications, drugs, toxins, and alcohol.Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease that occurs when your body makes antibodies against your liver tissue.

Your liver is located in the right upper area of your abdomen. It performs many critical functions that affect metabolism throughout your body, including:

  • bile production, which is essential todigestion
  • filtering of toxins from your body
  • excretion of bilirubin (a product of broken-down red blood cells), cholesterol, hormones, and drugs
  • breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
  • activation of enzymes, which are specialized proteins essential to body functions
  • storage of glycogen (a form of sugar), minerals, and vitamins (A, D, E, and K)
  • synthesis of blood proteins, such as albumin
  • synthesis of clotting factors

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source, approximately 4.4 million Americans are currently living with chronic hepatitis B and C. Many more people don’t even know that they have hepatitis.

Treatment options vary depending on which type of hepatitis you have. You can prevent some forms of hepatitis through immunizations and lifestyle .


Hepatitis

Medically reviewed by Judith Marcin, MDon May 9, 2017 — Written by April Kahn and Valencia Higuera

What is hepatitis?

Hepatitis refers to an inflammatory condition of the liver. It’s commonly caused by a viral infection, but there are other possible causes of hepatitis. These include autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis that occurs as a secondary result of medications, drugs, toxins, and alcohol.Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease that occurs when your body makes antibodies against your liver tissue.

Your liver is located in the right upper area of your abdomen. It performs many critical functions that affect metabolism throughout your body, including:

  • bile production, which is essential todigestion
  • filtering of toxins from your body
  • excretion of bilirubin (a product of broken-down red blood cells), cholesterol, hormones, and drugs
  • breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
  • activation of enzymes, which are specialized proteins essential to body functions
  • storage of glycogen (a form of sugar), minerals, and vitamins (A, D, E, and K)
  • synthesis of blood proteins, such as albumin
  • synthesis of clotting factors

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source, approximately 4.4 million Americans are currently living with chronic hepatitis B and C. Many more people don’t even know that they have hepatitis.

Treatment options vary depending on which type of hepatitis you have. You can prevent some forms of hepatitis through immunizations and lifestyle precautions.

The 5 types of viral hepatitis

Viral infections of the liver that are classified as hepatitis include hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. A different virus is responsible for each type of virally transmitted hepatitis.

Hepatitis A is always an acute, short-term disease, while hepatitis B, C, and D are most likely to become ongoing and chronic. Hepatitis E is usually acute but can be particularly dangerous in pregnant women.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is caused by an infection with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). This type of hepatitis is most commonly transmitted by consuming food or water contaminated by feces from a person infected with hepatitis A.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is transmitted through contact with infectious body fluids, such as blood, vaginal secretions, or semen, containing the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Injection drug use, having sex with an infected partner, or sharing razors with an infected person increase your risk of getting hepatitis B.

It’s estimated by the CDCTrusted Source that 1.2 million people in the United States and 350 million people worldwide live with this chronic disease.

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C comes from the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis C is transmitted through direct contact with infected body fluids, typically through injection drug use and sexual contact. HCV is among the most common bloodborne viral infections in the United States. Approximately 2.7 to 3.9 million AmericansTrusted Source are currently living with a chronic form of this infection.

Hepatitis D

Also called delta hepatitis, hepatitis D is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV). HDV is contracted through direct contact with infected blood. Hepatitis D is a rare form of hepatitis that only occurs in conjunction with hepatitis B infection. The hepatitis D virus can’t multiply without the presence of hepatitis B. It’s very uncommon in the United States.

Hepatitis E

Hepatitis E is a waterborne disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hepatitis E is mainly found in areas with poor sanitation and typically results from ingesting fecal matter that contaminates the water supply. This disease is uncommon in the United States. However, cases of hepatitis E have been reported in the Middle East, Asia, Central America, and Africa, according to the CDCTrusted Source.

Causes of noninfectious hepatitis

Alcohol and other toxins

Excessive alcohol consumption can cause liver damage and inflammation. This is sometimes referred to as alcoholic hepatitis. The alcohol directly injures the cells of your liver. Over time, it can cause permanent damage and lead to liver failure and cirrhosis, a thickening and scarring of the liver.

Other toxic causes of hepatitis include overuse or overdose of medications and exposure to poisons.

Autoimmune system response

in some cases, the immune system mistakes the liver as a harmful object and begins to attack it. It causes ongoing inflammation that can range from mild to severe, often hindering liver function. It’sthree times more common in women than in men.

Common symptoms of hepatitis

If you have infectious forms of hepatitis that are chronic, like hepatitis B and C, you may not have symptoms in the beginning. Symptoms may not occur until the damage affects liver function.

Signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis appear quickly. They include:

Chronic hepatitis develops slowly, so these signs and symptoms may be too subtle to notice.

How hepatitis is diagnosed

History and physical exam

To diagnose hepatitis, first your doctor will take your history to determine any risk factors you may have for infectious or noninfectious hepatitis.

During a physical examination, your doctor may press down gently on your abdomen to see if there’s pain or tenderness. Your doctor may also feel to see if your liver is enlarged. If your skin or eyes are yellow, your doctor will note this during the exam.

Liver function tests

Liver function tests use blood samples to determine how efficiently your liver works. Abnormal results of these tests may be the first indication that there is a problem, especially if you don’t show any signs on a physical exam of liver disease. High liver enzyme levels may indicate that your liver is stressed, damaged, or not functioning properly.

Other blood tests

If your liver function tests are abnormal, your doctor will likely order other bloodtests to detect the source of the problem. These tests can check for the viruses that cause hepatitis. They can also be used to check for antibodies that are common in conditions like autoimmune hepatitis.

Ultrasound

An abdominal ultrasound uses ultrasound waves to create an image of the organs within your abdomen. This test allows your doctor to take a close at your liver and nearby organs. It can reveal:

  • fluid in your abdomen
  • liver damage or enlargement
  • liver tumors
  • abnormalities of your gallbladder

Sometimes the pancreas shows up on ultrasound images as well. This can be a useful test in determining the cause of your abnormal liver function.

Liver biopsy

liver biopsy is an invasive procedure that involves your doctor taking a sample of tissue from your liver. It can be done through your skin with a needle and doesn’t require surgery. Typically, an ultrasound is used to guide your doctor when taking the biopsy sample.

This test allows your doctor to determine how infection or inflammation has affected your liver. It can also be used to sample any areas in your liver that appear abnormal.

How hepatitis is treated

Treatment options are determined by which type of hepatitis you have and whether the infection is acute or chronic.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A usually doesn’t require treatment because it’s a short-term illness. Bed rest may be recommended if symptoms cause a great deal of discomfort. If you experience vomiting ordiarrhea, follow your doctor’s orders for hydration and nutrition.

The hepatitis A vaccine is available to prevent this infection. Most children begin vaccination between ages 12 and 18 months. It’s a series of two vaccines. Vaccination for hepatitis A is also available for adults and can be combined with the hepatitis B vaccine.

Hepatitis B

Acute hepatitis B doesn’t require specific treatment.

Chronic hepatitis B is treated with antiviral medications. This form of treatment can be costly because it must be continued for several months or years. Treatment for chronic hepatitis B also requires regular medical evaluations and monitoring to determine if the virus is responding to treatment.

Hepatitis B can be prevented with vaccination. The CDCTrusted Source recommends hepatitis B vaccinations for all newborns. The series of three vaccines is typically completed over the first six months of childhood. The vaccine is also recommended for all healthcare and medical personnel.

Hepatitis C

Antiviral medications are used to treat both acute and chronic forms of hepatitis C. People who develop chronic hepatitis C are typically treated with a combination of antiviral drug therapies. They may also need further testing to determine the best form of treatment.

People who develop cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) or liver disease as a result of chronic hepatitis C may be candidates for a liver transplant.

Currently, there is no vaccination for hepatitis C.

Hepatitis D

No antiviral medications exist for the treatment of hepatitis D at this time. According to a 2013 studyTrusted Source, a drug called alpha interferon can be used to treat hepatitis D, but it only shows improvement in about 25 to 30 percent of people.

Hepatitis D can be prevented by getting the vaccination for hepatitis B, as infection with hepatitis B is necessary for hepatitis D to develop.

Hepatitis E

Currently, no specific medical therapies are available to treat hepatitis E. Because the infection is often acute, it typically resolves on its own. People with this type of infection are often advised to get adequate rest, drink plenty of fluids, get enough nutrients, and avoid alcohol. However, pregnant women who develop this infection require close monitoring and care.

Autoimmune hepatitis

Corticosteroids, like prednisone or budesonide, are extremely important in the early treatment of autoimmune hepatitis. They’re effective in about 80 percent of people with this condition.

Azothioprine (Imuran), a drug that suppresses the immune system, is often included in treatment. It can be used with or without steroids.

Other immune suppressing drugs like mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (Prograf) and cyclosporine (Neoral) can also be used as alternatives to azathioprine for treatment.

Tips to prevent hepatitis

Hygiene

Practicing good hygiene is one key way to avoid contracting hepatitis A and E. If you’re traveling to a developing country, you should avoid:

  • local water
  • ice
  • raw or undercooked shellfish and oysters
  • raw fruit and vegetables

Hepatitis B, C, and D contracted through contaminated blood can be prevented by:

  • not sharing drug needles
  • not sharing razors
  • not using someone else’s toothbrush
  • not touching spilled blood

Hepatitis B and C can also be contracted through sexual intercourse and intimate sexual contact. Practicing safe sex by using condoms and dental dams can help decrease the risk of infection. You can find many options available for purchaseonline.

Vaccines

The use of vaccines is an important key to preventing hepatitis. Vaccinations are available to prevent the development of hepatitis A and B. Experts are currently developing vaccines against hepatitis C. A vaccination for hepatitis E exists in China, but it isn’t available in the United States.

Medically reviewed by Judith Marcin, MDon May 9, 2017 — Written by April Kahn and Valencia Higuera

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source, approximately 4.4 million Americans are currently living with chronic hepatitis B and C. Many more people don’t even know that they have hepatitis.

Treatment options vary depending on which type of hepatitis you have. You can prevent some forms of hepatitis through immunizations and lifestyle precautions.

The 5 types of viral hepatitis

Viral infections of the liver that are classified as hepatitis include hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. A different virus is responsible for each type of virally transmitted hepatitis.

Hepatitis A is always an acute, short-term disease, while hepatitis B, C, and D are most likely to become ongoing and chronic. Hepatitis E is usually acute but can be particularly dangerous in pregnant women.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is caused by an infection with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). This type of hepatitis is most commonly transmitted by consuming food or water contaminated by feces from a person infected with hepatitis A.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is transmitted through contact with infectious body fluids, such as blood, vaginal secretions, or semen, containing the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Injection drug use, having sex with an infected partner, or sharing razors with an infected person increase your risk of getting hepatitis B.

It’s estimated by the CDCTrusted Source that 1.2 million people in the United States and 350 million people worldwide live with this chronic disease.

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C comes from the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis C is transmitted through direct contact with infected body fluids, typically through injection drug use and sexual contact. HCV is among the most common bloodborne viral infections in the United States. Approximately 2.7 to 3.9 million AmericansTrusted Source are currently living with a chronic form of this infection.

Hepatitis D

Also called delta hepatitis, hepatitis D is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV). HDV is contracted through direct contact with infected blood. Hepatitis D is a rare form of hepatitis that only occurs in conjunction with hepatitis B infection. The hepatitis D virus can’t multiply without the presence of hepatitis B. It’s very uncommon in the United States.

Hepatitis E

Hepatitis E is a waterborne disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hepatitis E is mainly found in areas with poor sanitation and typically results from ingesting fecal matter that contaminates the water supply. This disease is uncommon in the United States. However, cases of hepatitis E have been reported in the Middle East, Asia, Central America, and Africa, according to the CDCTrusted Source.

Causes of noninfectious hepatitis

Alcohol and other toxins

Excessive alcohol consumption can cause liver damage and inflammation. This is sometimes referred to as alcoholic hepatitis. The alcohol directly injures the cells of your liver. Over time, it can cause permanent damage and lead to liver failure and cirrhosis, a thickening and scarring of the liver.

Other toxic causes of hepatitis include overuse or overdose of medications and exposure to poisons.

Autoimmune system response

In some cases, the immune system mistakes the liver as a harmful object and begins to attack it. It causes ongoing inflammation that can range from mild to severe, often hindering liver function. It’sthree times more common in women than in men.

Common symptoms of hepatitis

If you have infectious forms of hepatitis that are chronic, like hepatitis B and C, you may not have symptoms in the beginning. Symptoms may not occur until the damage affects liver function.

Signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis appear quickly. They include:

Chronic hepatitis develops slowly, so these signs and symptoms may be too subtle to notice.

How hepatitis is diagnosed

History and physical exam

To diagnose hepatitis, first your doctor will take your history to determine any risk factors you may have for infectious or noninfectious hepatitis.

During a physical examination, your doctor may press down gently on your abdomen to see if there’s pain or tenderness. Your doctor may also feel to see if your liver is enlarged. If your skin or eyes are yellow, your doctor will note this during the exam.

Liver function tests

Liver function tests use blood samples to determine how efficiently your liver works. Abnormal results of these tests may be the first indication that there is a problem, especially if you don’t show any signs on a physical exam of liver disease. High liver enzyme levels may indicate that your liver is stressed, damaged, or not functioning properly.

Other blood tests

If your liver function tests are abnormal, your doctor will likely order other bloodtests to detect the source of the problem. These tests can check for the viruses that cause hepatitis. They can also be used to check for antibodies that are common in conditions like autoimmune hepatitis.

Ultrasound

An abdominal ultrasound uses ultrasound waves to create an image of the organs within your abdomen. This test allows your doctor to take a close at your liver and nearby organs. It can reveal:

  • fluid in your abdomen
  • liver damage or enlargement
  • liver tumors
  • abnormalities of your gallbladder

Sometimes the pancreas shows up on ultrasound images as well. This can be a useful test in determining the cause of your abnormal liver function.

Liver biopsy

liver biopsy is an invasive procedure that involves your doctor taking a sample of tissue from your liver. It can be done through your skin with a needle and doesn’t require surgery. Typically, an ultrasound is used to guide your doctor when taking the biopsy sample.

This test allows your doctor to determine how infection or inflammation has affected your liver. It can also be used to sample any areas in your liver that appear abnormal.

How hepatitis is treated

Treatment options are determined by which type of hepatitis you have and whether the infection is acute or chronic.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A usually doesn’t require treatment because it’s a short-term illness. Bed rest may be recommended if symptoms cause a great deal of discomfort. If you experience vomiting ordiarrhea, follow your doctor’s orders for hydration and nutrition.

The hepatitis A vaccine is available to prevent this infection. Most children begin vaccination between ages 12 and 18 months. It’s a series of two vaccines. Vaccination for hepatitis A is also available for adults and can be combined with the hepatitis B vaccine.

Hepatitis B

Acute hepatitis B doesn’t require specific treatment.

Chronic hepatitis B is treated with antiviral medications. This form of treatment can be costly because it must be continued for several months or years. Treatment for chronic hepatitis B also requires regular medical evaluations and monitoring to determine if the virus is responding to treatment.

Hepatitis B can be prevented with vaccination. The CDCTrusted Source recommends hepatitis B vaccinations for all newborns. The series of three vaccines is typically completed over the first six months of childhood. The vaccine is also recommended for all healthcare and medical personnel.

Hepatitis C

Antiviral medications are used to treat both acute and chronic forms of hepatitis C. People who develop chronic hepatitis C are typically treated with a combination of antiviral drug therapies. They may also need further testing to determine the best form of treatment.

People who develop cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) or liver disease as a result of chronic hepatitis C may be candidates for a liver transplant.

Currently, there is no vaccination for hepatitis C.

Hepatitis D

No antiviral medications exist for the treatment of hepatitis D at this time. According to a 2013 studyTrusted Source, a drug called alpha interferon can be used to treat hepatitis D, but it only shows improvement in about 25 to 30 percent of people.

Hepatitis D can be prevented by getting the vaccination for hepatitis B, as infection with hepatitis B is necessary for hepatitis D to develop.

Hepatitis E

Currently, no specific medical therapies are available to treat hepatitis E. Because the infection is often acute, it typically resolves on its own. People with this type of infection are often advised to get adequate rest, drink plenty of fluids, get enough nutrients, and avoid alcohol. However, pregnant women who develop this infection require close monitoring and care.

Autoimmune hepatitis

Corticosteroids, like prednisone or budesonide, are extremely important in the early treatment of autoimmune hepatitis. They’re effective in about 80 percent of people with this condition.

Azothioprine (Imuran), a drug that suppresses the immune system, is often included in treatment. It can be used with or without steroids.

Other immune suppressing drugs like mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (Prograf) and cyclosporine (Neoral) can also be used as alternatives to azathioprine for treatment.

Tips to prevent hepatitis

Hygiene

Practicing good hygiene is one key way to avoid contracting hepatitis A and E. If you’re traveling to a developing country, you should avoid:

  • local water
  • ice
  • raw or undercooked shellfish and oysters
  • raw fruit and vegetables

Hepatitis B, C, and D contracted through contaminated blood can be prevented by:

  • not sharing drug needles
  • not sharing razors
  • not using someone else’s toothbrush
  • not touching spilled blood

Hepatitis B and C can also be contracted through sexual intercourse and intimate sexual contact. Practicing safe sex by using condoms and dental dams can help decrease the risk of infection. You can find many options available for purchaseonline.

Vaccines

The use of vaccines is an important key to preventing hepatitis. Vaccinations are available to prevent the development of hepatitis A and B. Experts are currently developing vaccines against hepatitis C. A vaccination for hepatitis E exists in China, but it isn’t available in the United States.

Complications of hepatitis

Chronic hepatitis B or C can often lead to more serious health problems. Because the virus affects the liver, people with chronic hepatitis B or C are at risk for:

When your liver stops functioning normally, liver failure can occur. Complications of liver failure include:

  • bleeding disorders
  • a buildup of fluid in your abdomen, known as ascites
  • increased blood pressure in portal veins that enter your liver, known asportal hypertension
  • kidney failure
  • hepatic encephalopathy, which can involve fatigue, memory loss, and diminished mental abilities due to the buildup of toxins, like ammonia, that affect brain function
  • hepatocellular carcinoma, which is a form of liver cancer
  • death

People with chronic hepatitis B and C are encouraged to avoid alcohol because it can accelerate liver disease and failure. Certain supplements and medications can also affect liver function. If you have chronic hepatitis B or C

A PERSON SUFFERING FROM HEPATITIS

LEAVES AND WHAT THEY WORK

How To Clean Your Kidneys and Avoid Dialysis ( Using Garden Egg Leaves.)


HOW TO USE IT
·       Cut the leaves into pieces.
·       Rinse in clean water.
·       Put in a clean pot with clean water.
·       Boil for 10 minutes. Filter it in a bottle.
Allow to cool and take a glass cup. When you urinate, check your urine. You will notice the salt in the body and some other diseases that can affect your KIDNEY will pass through your urine.
Garden egg leaves is also a fantastic blood tonic!
Wash and drink the juice only or mix with liquid milk. it has a yummy taste. You’ll sleep off while the cup is in your hand 

 The leaves of Garden egg are used in making soups especially Okro. It quickly gets soft so put it in the soup after you have turned off the fire. Cover the pot and allow it to coo

EWEDU LEAF FOR EASY CHILD BIRTH EWE ABIWERE (LEAF OF SAFE DELIVERANCE)JUTE LEAVES
we shall discuss brively about this leave called a Ewedu it is we use in our Odin day but we has forget now but i nweke chidera Emmanuel we flash your memories back mark to day date 11 December 2019 if you test it if what i said is true please try to comment . The rate of cesarean section (C.S) birth is increasing by the day. If you recall in the olden days there are logical orthodox method in which our Fore fathers and traditional healers used to protect the offspring and the life of the mother from any difficulty from child birth. It’s very rare those days to see or hear of a case of a woman dying at child birth or a long labour challenge. This has changed with modern ways and junk eating habits that has currently made more than 70 % baby deliverance to come through surgical , Nature and God gave us Ewedu Leaves known as (EWE ABIWERE) Meaning (leaf of Safe delivery).It’s called Jute leaves in English Language, Igbo people call it Achingbara, Hausa call it LALO and it botanically known as Corchorus Olitorius.God has indeed blessed us with herbs…”It is simply nature”.It has been observed especially among the Yoruba speaking community of Nigeria that pregnant women who eat ewedu soup made from ewedu leaves frequently experience quick, smooth, almost painless delivery.
🤰🌿🤰Quick Delivery: When a pregnant woman is having a hard labour, get a bunch of draw leaf (Ewedu) and squeeze with the stem for once and let her take it; it will lubricate the system for easy delivery. It is also good for prevention from 6 months pregnancy.
This leaf (Ewedu) is clearly rich in micro nutrients, and these micro nutrients aid in reducing the chances of illness in body especially for the baby in the inner side.
It is a green leafy edible vegetable that is prepared into the delicious slimy soup called ewedu. The leaf is rich in minerals, vitamins and antioxidants, iron, calcium, sodium, phosphorus, potassium, proteins, fibers, Vitamins A, C and E, riboflavin, niacin and foliate. These are nutrients that help the body to fight diseases and maintain good health.
🌿🌿This leaf is very essential for the mother and the baby, it will avail pregnant women to look fresh, beautiful and energetic because the leaf contains vitamins that are very important as an antioxidant which will help the loss of waste water through the skin, thus reducing the wrinkles that are the main cause of pregnant mask.
🌿🌿Not only that Vitamins A, C, and E contained in Ewe Abiwere is the key to shrink off tissue damage that can cause cancer and the effectiveness of antioxidants and lignin that can provide protection against the development of cancer cells.
Not only that, the calcium in ewewdu helps offspring to gain healthy structure , bones formation and the baby will have strong teeth and stamina in his life time. In addition, it is also contain useful phosphorus to maintain bone density. Thus, bone can avoid the danger of osteoporosis.
So, consuming Ewedu every day will give health to bone and teeth of both mother and the baby. Vitamin E in ewedu can work to reduce pain for the mother and also increase stamina. Ewedu has been known to be a remedy for pregnant women experiencing prolonged labour. A bunch of ewedu leaves squeezed with the stem can be given to her to drink. It has also been discovered that Ewedu leaves to aid milk secretion in lactating mothers…..
🤰🌿🤰How to prepare it for easy delivery
(1). Gather this leaf, preferably the fresh one, wash it very Properly
(2). Add little water, Squeeze it properly and filter it to get the juice.
(3). Drink it without adding anything.
🌿🤰Other Method of preparation
👉 Some people prefer the cook one with locust beans without adding salt, and they will take half cup as a dosage but is not as good as the one you prepare with water and take raw.Note.
1. Please, this is not meant for 2 to 6 month pregnancy. The leaf may not have the potential acid to terminate pregnant but it can sanction the baby to come prematurely.
This is the most, if not the only best, herb for the pregnancy of 7 to 8 month above. In this stage there is no over dose if it because your baby will continue to grow normally.
For the baby that Stand in the womb abnormally such as bridge, which is one of the reasons that precipitate CS, just get water Mellon, blended properly and get water juice, use it to squeeze the above mentioned leaf, this will help reposition your baby to turn to the normal position.
For those who have pelvic tight issue, use this leaf to prepare local soap that will space the door for the offspring.
For the unstoppable blood after birth, the Woman will not use this herb twice before the blood will regulate.
BENEFITS OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM (SCENT|NCHANWU|EFIRIN LEAF)




~ Studies show that the extracts of nchanwuplant (O. gratissimum) contain anti-fungal properties.
~ The scent leaf can be used in the treatment of cough and catarrh when inhaled.
~ Scent leaf can be infused and used as a remedy for stomach disorder such as gastroenteritis.
~ Nchanwu leaf can be used to treat stomach pain, diarrhoea, cholera, chronic dysentery and vomiting especially if blended and infused together with the leaves of P. sentalinoides.
~ Nchanwu leaves can also act as a repellent to mosquitoes and other insects.
~ The nchanwu leaves can be used for preventing and treating malaria, catarrh, cough and fever.
~ The essential oil of scent leaf contains eugenol, which has antibacterial properties.
~ Squeezed nchanwu juice can be used for treating convulsion.
~ The essential oil present in nchanwu leaves contain anti-fungal, antibacterial and antiseptics properties.
~ The Ibo people of the Eastern part of Nigeria uses the nchanwu juice in caring for baby’s cord.
~ The Igbos believe that the nchanwu juice helps a lot in sterilizing the wound surface of a baby’s cord until the wound is healed.
~ Nchanwu is also used for treating gout and fungal infections.
~ Nchanwu plant is diaphoretic and anti-convulsant in nature.
~ The aqueous extracts of the scented leaf can be taken to relief earache and colon pains.
~ Squeezed nchanwu leaves are applied on the skin for treating skin diseases and ringworm.
~ Nchanwu seeds can be infused for treating urinary infections and gonorrhoea.
~ Nchanwu roots when boiled together with Jatropha curcas leaves and xylopia aethiopicafruit can be given to children to boost their strength and energy.
~ Nutritionally, Nchanwu leaf is very aromatic, which suggests why it is used for flavouring, spicing and seasoning food, soups and dishes.
~ Nchanwu oil can be used as a foodpreservative due to its anti-microbial and anti-bacterial properties.
DISCLAIMER
This post is for enlightenment purposes only and should not be used as a replacement for professional diagnosis and treatments. Remember to always consult your health care provider before making any health-related decisions or for counselling, guidance and treatment about a specific medical condition.
REFERENCES
GINGER
The root of the plant is used to make extracts and oils. 
It can also be eaten fresh. Ginger helps to prevent nausea and protects the stomach against ulcers. 
It also contains active ingredients with pain relieving properties. Should not be used by people suffering from gallstones.
ALOE VERA
Aloe vera contains a gel squeezed from the leaves which can ease the pain of burns and grazes
This is a tropical succulent plant that contains a gel which is squeezed from the leaves. 
The gel can ease the pain of burns and grazes. It also is anti-fungal and anti-bacterial and soothes eczema. 
A mouthwash is good for sore gums. Whole leaf tincture can be taken to relieve constipation, although aloe vera should not be taken internally during pregnancy.

GARLIC

Garlic may have a role to play in preventing some kinds of cancer, including stomach cancer
This is a pungent bulb that belongs to the onion family. Can be eaten daily or taken as pills. 
It contains the natural antiseptic, allicin, and helps to support the immune system. 
Taken regularly, it may help to ward off coughs and colds. It is also effective against sinusitis and intestinal worms. 
The fresh juice is a natural remedy for skin fungal infections. 
It may have a role to play in preventing some kinds of cancer, including stomach cancer. Eating fresh parsley will reduce the smell.

ACNE

we will treat on problem about acne and it definition as you can see on the picture how acne looke like .What Is Acne and What Causes It?
Acne is a condition of the skin that shows up as different types of bumps. These bumps can be blackheads, whiteheads, pimples, or cysts. Teens get acne because of the hormonal changes that come with puberty. If your parents had acne as teens, it’s more likely that you will, too. The good news is that, for most people, acne goes away almost completely by the time they are out of their teens.
The type of acne that a lot of teens get is called acne vulgaris (the meaning of “vulgaris” isn’t as bad as it sounds — it means “of the common type”). It usually shows up on the face, neck, shoulders, upper back, and chest.
The hair follicles, or pores, in your skin contain sebaceous glands (also called oil glands). These glands make sebum, which is an oil that lubricates your hair and skin. Most of the time, the sebaceous glands make the right amount of sebum. As the body begins to mature and develop, though, hormones stimulate the sebaceous glands to make more sebum.
Pores become clogged if there is too much sebum and too many dead skin cells. Bacteria (especially one calledPropionibacterium acnes) can then get trapped inside the pores and multiply. This causes swelling and redness — the start of acne.
If a pore gets clogged up and closes but bulges out from the skin, you’re left with awhitehead. If a pore gets clogged up but stays open, the top surface can darken and you’re left with a blackhead. Sometimes the wall of the pore opens, allowing sebum, bacteria, and dead skin cells to make their way under the skin — and you’re left with a small, red bump called a pimple (sometimes pimples have a pus-filled top from the body’s reaction to the bacterial infection).
Clogged pores that open up very deep in the skin can cause nodules, which are infected lumps or cysts that are bigger than pimples and can be painful. Occasionally, large cysts that seem like acne may be boils caused by a staph infection.
What Can I Do About Acne?
To help prevent the oil buildup that can contribute to acne, wash your face once or twice a day with a mild soap and warm water. Don’t scrub your face hard with a washcloth — acne can’t be scrubbed away, and scrubbing may actually make it worse by irritating the skin and pores. Try cleansing your face as gently as you can.
If you wear makeup or sunscreen, make sure it’s labeled “noncomedogenic” or “nonacnegenic.” This means it won’t clog your pores and contribute to acne. And when you’re washing your face, be sure you take the time to remove all of your makeup so it doesn’t clog your pores.
Acne isn’t really helped by the sun. Although a tan can temporarily make acne look less severe, it won’t help it go away permanently — and some people find that the oils their skin produces after being in the sun make their pimples worse.
If you use hair sprays or gels, try to keep them away from your face, as they also can clog pores. If you have long hair that touches your face, be sure to wash it often enough to keep oil away. And if you have an after-school job that puts you in contact with oil — like in a fast-food restaurant or gas station, for example — be sure to wash your face well when you get home. It also can help to wash your face after you’ve been exercising.
Many over-the-counter lotions and creams containing salicylic acid or benzoyl peroxide are available to help prevent acne and clear it up at the same time. You can experiment with these to see which helps. Be sure to follow the instructions exactly — don’t use more than you’re supposed to at one time (your skin may get too dried out and feel and look worse) and follow any label directions about allergy testing.
Some people do find that they notice their breakouts get more severe when they eat too much of a certain food. If you’re one of them, it’s worth trying to cut back on that food to see what happens.
What if I Get Acne Anyway?
Sometimes even though they wash properly and try lotions and oil-free makeup, people get acne anyway — and this is totally normal. In fact, some girls who normally have a handle on their acne may find that it comes out a few days before they get their period. This is called premenstrual acne, and about 7 out of 10 women get it from changes in hormones in the body.
Some teens who have acne can get help from a doctor or dermatologist (a doctor who specializes in skin problems). A doctor may treat the acne with prescription medicines. Depending on the person’s acne, this might mean using prescription creams that prevent pimples from forming, taking antibiotics to kill the bacteria that help create pimples, or if the acne is severe, taking stronger medicines such as isotretinoin, or even having minor surgery. Some girls find that birth control pills help to clear up their acne.
If you look in the mirror and see a pimple,don’t touch it, squeeze it, or pick at it. This might be hard to do — it can be pretty tempting to try to get rid of a pimple. But when you play around with pimples, you can cause even more inflammation by popping them or opening them up. Plus, the oil from your hands can’t help! More important, though, picking at pimples can leave tiny, permanent scars on your face.

Symptoms

  • Common acne
  • Cystic acne

Acne signs and symptoms vary depending on the severity of your condition:

  • Whiteheads (closed plugged pores)
  • Blackheads (open plugged pores)
  • Small red, tender bumps (papules)
  • Pimples (pustules), which are papules with pus at their tips
  • Large, solid, painful lumps beneath the surface of the skin (nodules)
  • Painful, pus-filled lumps beneath the surface of the skin (cystic lesions)

When to see a doctor

If self-care remedies don’t clear your acne, see your primary care doctor. He or she can prescribe stronger medications. If acne persists or is severe, you may want to seek medical treatment from a doctor who specializes in the skin (dermatologist).

For many women, acne can persist for decades, with flares common a week before menstruation. This type of acne tends to clear up without treatment in women who use contraceptives.

In older adults, a sudden onset of severe acne may signal an underlying disease requiring medical attention.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warns that some popular nonprescription acne lotions, cleansers and other skin products can cause a serious reaction. This type of reaction is quite rare, so don’t confuse it with the redness, irritation or itchiness where you’ve applied medications or products.

Seek emergency medical help if after using a skin product you experience:

  • jFaintness
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Swelling of the eyes, face, lips or tongue
  • Tightness of the 

Causes

Four main factors cause acne:

  • Excess oil production
  • Hair follicles clogged by oil and dead skin cells
  • Bacteria
  • Excess activity of a type of hormone (androgens)

Acne typically appears on your face, forehead, chest, upper back and shoulders because these areas of skin have the most oil (sebaceous) glands. Hair follicles are connected to oil glands.

The follicle wall may bulge and produce a whitehead. Or the plug may be open to the surface and darken, causing a blackhead. A blackhead may look like dirt stuck in pores. But actually the pore is congested with bacteria and oil, which turns brown when it’s exposed to the air.

Pimples are raised red spots with a white center that develop when blocked hair follicles become inflamed or infected with bacteria. Blockages and inflammation that develop deep inside hair follicles produce cystlike lumps beneath the surface of your skin. Other pores in your skin, which are the openings of the sweat glands, aren’t usually involved in acne.

Factors that may worsen acne

These factors can trigger or aggravate acne:

  • Hormones. Androgens are hormones that increase in boys and girls during puberty and cause the sebaceous glands to enlarge and make more sebum. Hormonal changes related to pregnancy and the use of oral contraceptives also can affect sebum production. And low amounts of androgens circulate in the blood of women and can worsen acne.
  • Certain medications. Examples include drugs containing corticosteroids, testosterone or lithium.
  • Diet. Studies indicate that certain dietary factors, including skim milk and carbohydrate-rich foods — such as bread, bagels and chips — may worsen acne. Chocolate has long been suspected of making acne worse. A small study of 14 men with acne showed that eating chocolate was related to a worsening of symptoms. Further study is needed to examine why this happens and whether people with acne would benefit from following specific dietary restrictions.
  • Stress. Stress can make acne worse.

Acne myths

  • How acne develops

These factors have little effect on acne:

  • Greasy foods. Eating greasy food has little to no effect on acne. Though working in a greasy area, such as a kitchen with fry vats, does because the oil can stick to the skin and block the hair follicles. This further irritates the skin or promotes acne.
  • Hygiene. Acne isn’t caused by dirty skin. In fact, scrubbing the skin too hard or cleansing with harsh soaps or chemicals irritates the skin and can make acne worse.
  • Cosmetics. Cosmetics don’t necessarily worsen acne, especially if you use oil-free makeup that doesn’t clog pores (noncomedogenics) and remove makeup regularly. Nonoily cosmetics don’t interfere with the effectiveness of acne drugs.

Risk factors

Risk factors for acne include:

  • Age. People of all ages can get acne, but it’s most common in teenagers.
  • Hormonal changes. Such changes are common in teenagers, women and girls, and people using certain medications, including those containing corticosteroids, androgens or lithium.
  • Family history. Genetics plays a role in acne. If both parents had acne, you’re likely to develop it, too.
  • Greasy or oily substances. You may develop acne where your skin comes into contact with oily lotions and creams or with grease in a work area, such as a kitchen with fry vats.
  • Friction or pressure on your skin. This can be caused by items such as telephones, cellphones, helmets, tight collars and backpacks.
  • Stress. Stress doesn’t cause acne, but if you have acne already, it may make it worse.

ASTHMA AND ITS SYMPTOMS

Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways to the lungs. It makes breathing difficult and can make some physical activities difficult or even impossible.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),approximately 27 million AmericansTrusted Source have asthma. It’s the most common chronic condition among American children: 1 child out of every 12Trusted Source has asthma.

To understand asthma, you need to understand a little about what happens when you breathe.

Normally, with every breath you take, air goes through your nose and down into your throat, into your airways, eventually making it to your lungs. There are lots of small air passages in your lungs that help deliver oxygen from the air into your bloodstream.

Asthma symptoms occur when the lining of your airways swell and the muscles around them tighten. Mucus then fills the airways, further reducing the amount of air that can pass through.

These conditions then bring on an asthma “attack,” the coughing and tightness in your chest that is typical of asthma.

Asthma symptoms

Symptoms of asthma include:

The type of asthma that you have can determine which symptoms you experience.

Not everyone with asthma will experience these particular symptoms. If you think the symptoms you’re experiencing could be a sign of a condition such as asthma, make an appointment to see your doctor.

The first indication that you have asthma may not be an actual asthma attack.Discover some early symptoms of asthma you may experience instead.

Cause of asthma

No single cause has been identified for asthma. Instead, researchers believe that the breathing condition is caused by a variety of factors. These factors include:

  • Genetics. If a parent has asthma, you’re more likely to develop it.
  • History of viral infections. People with a history of viral infections during childhood are more likely to develop the condition.
  • Hygiene hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that babies aren’t exposed to enough bacteria in their early months and years. Therefore, their immune systems don’t become strong enough to fight off asthma and other conditions.
  • Early allergen exposure. Frequent contact with possible allergens and irritants may increase your risk for developing asthma.

Asthma triggers

Certain conditions and environments may also trigger symptoms of asthma. These triggers include:

  • Illness. Respiratory illnesses such as the flu and pneumonia can trigger asthma attacks.
  • Exercise. Increased movement may make breathing more difficult.
  • Irritants in the air. People with asthma may be sensitive to irritants such as chemical fumes, strong odors, and smoke.
  • Allergens. Animal dander, dust mites, and pollen are just a few examples of allergens that can trigger symptoms.
  • Extreme weather conditions.Conditions such as very high humidity or low temperatures may trigger asthma.
  • Emotions. Shouting, laughing, and crying may trigger an attack.

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Medically reviewed by Debra Sullivan, PhD, MSN, RN, CNE, COI on October 1, 2018 — Written by the Healthline Editorial Team and Kimberly Holland

If you buy something through a link on this page, we may earn a small commission. How this works.

What Do You Want to Know About Asthma?

Overview

Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways to the lungs. It makes breathing difficult and can make some physical activities difficult or even impossible.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),approximately 27 million AmericansTrusted Source have asthma. It’s the most common chronic condition among American children: 1 child out of every 12Trusted Source has asthma.

To understand asthma, you need to understand a little about what happens when you breathe.

Normally, with every breath you take, air goes through your nose and down into your throat, into your airways, eventually making it to your lungs. There are lots of small air passages in your lungs that help deliver oxygen from the air into your bloodstream.

Asthma symptoms occur when the lining of your airways swell and the muscles around them tighten. Mucus then fills the airways, further reducing the amount of air that can pass through.

These conditions then bring on an asthma “attack,” the coughing and tightness in your chest that is typical of asthma.

Asthma symptoms

Symptoms of asthma include:

The type of asthma that you have can determine which symptoms you experience.

Not everyone with asthma will experience these particular symptoms. If you think the symptoms you’re experiencing could be a sign of a condition such as asthma, make an appointment to see your doctor.

The first indication that you have asthma may not be an actual asthma attack.Discover some early symptoms of asthma you may experience instead.

Cause of asthma

No single cause has been identified for asthma. Instead, researchers believe that the breathing condition is caused by a variety of factors. These factors include:

  • Genetics. If a parent has asthma, you’re more likely to develop it.
  • History of viral infections. People with a history of viral infections during childhood are more likely to develop the condition.
  • Hygiene hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that babies aren’t exposed to enough bacteria in their early months and years. Therefore, their immune systems don’t become strong enough to fight off asthma and other conditions.
  • Early allergen exposure. Frequent contact with possible allergens and irritants may increase your risk for developing asthma.

Asthma triggers

Certain conditions and environments may also trigger symptoms of asthma. These triggers include:

  • Illness. Respiratory illnesses such as the flu and pneumonia can trigger asthma attacks.
  • Exercise. Increased movement may make breathing more difficult.
  • Irritants in the air. People with asthma may be sensitive to irritants such as chemical fumes, strong odors, and smoke.
  • Allergens. Animal dander, dust mites, and pollen are just a few examples of allergens that can trigger symptoms.
  • Extreme weather conditions.Conditions such as very high humidity or low temperatures may trigger asthma.
  • Emotions. Shouting, laughing, and crying may trigger an attack.

The list of possible causes and triggers is extensive. Check out even more examples here.

Treatment of asthma

Treatments for asthma fall into three primary categories: breathing exercises, rescue or first aid treatments, and long-term asthma control medications.

Your doctor will determine the right treatment or combination of treatments for you based on the type of asthma you have, your age, and your triggers.

Breathing exercises

These exercises can help you get more air into and out of your lungs. Over time, this may help increase lung capacity and cut down on severe asthma symptoms. Your doctor or an occupational therapist can help you learn these breathing exercises for asthma.

Rescue or first aid treatments

These medications should only be used in the event of an asthma attack. They provide quick relief to help you breathe again. Examples include:

  • rescue inhalers and nebulizers, which are used with medicine that needs to be inhaled deep into the lungs
  • bronchodilators, which work to relax the tightened muscles in your lung
  • anti-inflammatories, which target inflammation in your lungs that could be preventing your breathing

If you think that someone you know is having an asthma attack, you should sit them upright and assist them in using their rescue inhaler or nebulizer. Two to six puffs of medication should help ease their symptoms.

If symptoms persist for more than 20 minutes, and a second round of medication doesn’t help, seek medical attention.

Long-term asthma control mediations

These medications should be taken daily to prevent symptoms. Some rescue treatments, such as inhalers and nebulizers, can be used daily. However, your doctor will need to adjust your dosages.

Several types of medications are used to treat asthma. Read more about each one to understand their risks and benefits.

Asthma home remedies

In general, over-the-counter (OTC) medicines and alternative remedies aren’t encouraged as treatments for asthma. If not treated properly, asthma can be life-threatening.

However, these home remedies may help stop symptoms from escalating and may be effective in an emergency:

Coffee or caffeinated tea

A chemical in caffeine acts similarly to the asthma drug theophylline. It opens up airways and may ease symptoms of asthma for up to four hours.

Purchase coffee and tea online.

Essential oils

Inhaling eucalyptus essential oil may ease breathing difficulties brought on by asthma. Lavender and basil essential oils also show promise. However, for some individuals, inhaling essential oils may make asthma worse. Strong smells and chemicals can trigger asthma or worsen symptoms.

Find eucalyptuslavender, and basilessential oils online.

Mustard oil

This fatty oil, made from pressed mustard seeds, can be massaged into the skin to help open airways. Mustard oil is different than mustard essential oil, a medicinal oil which shouldn’t be applied directly to the skin.

What Do You Want to Know About Asthma?

Overview

Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways to the lungs. It makes breathing difficult and can make some physical activities difficult or even impossible.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),approximately 27 million AmericansTrusted Source have asthma. It’s the most common chronic condition among American children: 1 child out of every 12Trusted Source has asthma.

To understand asthma, you need to understand a little about what happens when you breathe.

Normally, with every breath you take, air goes through your nose and down into your throat, into your airways, eventually making it to your lungs. There are lots of small air passages in your lungs that help deliver oxygen from the air into your bloodstream.

Asthma symptoms occur when the lining of your airways swell and the muscles around them tighten. Mucus then fills the airways, further reducing the amount of air that can pass through.

These conditions then bring on an asthma “attack,” the coughing and tightness in your chest that is typical of asthma.

Asthma symptoms

Symptoms of asthma include:

The type of asthma that you have can determine which symptoms you experience.

Not everyone with asthma will experience these particular symptoms. If you think the symptoms you’re experiencing could be a sign of a condition such as asthma, make an appointment to see your doctor.

The first indication that you have asthma may not be an actual asthma attack.Discover some early symptoms of asthma you may experience instead.

Cause of asthma

No single cause has been identified for asthma. Instead, researchers believe that the breathing condition is caused by a variety of factors. These factors include:

  • Genetics. If a parent has asthma, you’re more likely to develop it.
  • History of viral infections. People with a history of viral infections during childhood are more likely to develop the condition.
  • Hygiene hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that babies aren’t exposed to enough bacteria in their early months and years. Therefore, their immune systems don’t become strong enough to fight off asthma and other conditions.
  • Early allergen exposure. Frequent contact with possible allergens and irritants may increase your risk for developing asthma.

Asthma triggers

Certain conditions and environments may also trigger symptoms of asthma. These triggers include:

  • Illness. Respiratory illnesses such as the flu and pneumonia can trigger asthma attacks.
  • Exercise. Increased movement may make breathing more difficult.
  • Irritants in the air. People with asthma may be sensitive to irritants such as chemical fumes, strong odors, and smoke.
  • Allergens. Animal dander, dust mites, and pollen are just a few examples of allergens that can trigger symptoms.
  • Extreme weather conditions.Conditions such as very high humidity or low temperatures may trigger asthma.
  • Emotions. Shouting, laughing, and crying may trigger an attack.

The list of possible causes and triggers is extensive. Check out even more examples here.

Treatment of asthma

Treatments for asthma fall into three primary categories: breathing exercises, rescue or first aid treatments, and long-term asthma control medications.

Your doctor will determine the right treatment or combination of treatments for you based on the type of asthma you have, your age, and your triggers.

Breathing exercises

These exercises can help you get more air into and out of your lungs. Over time, this may help increase lung capacity and cut down on severe asthma symptoms. Your doctor or an occupational therapist can help you learn these breathing exercises for asthma.

Rescue or first aid treatments

These medications should only be used in the event of an asthma attack. They provide quick relief to help you breathe again. Examples include:

  • rescue inhalers and nebulizers, which are used with medicine that needs to be inhaled deep into the lungs
  • bronchodilators, which work to relax the tightened muscles in your lung
  • anti-inflammatories, which target inflammation in your lungs that could be preventing your breathing

If you think that someone you know is having an asthma attack, you should sit them upright and assist them in using their rescue inhaler or nebulizer. Two to six puffs of medication should help ease their symptoms.

If symptoms persist for more than 20 minutes, and a second round of medication doesn’t help, seek medical attention.

Long-term asthma control mediations

These medications should be taken daily to prevent symptoms. Some rescue treatments, such as inhalers and nebulizers, can be used daily. However, your doctor will need to adjust your dosages.

Several types of medications are used to treat asthma. Read more about each one to understand their risks and benefits.

Asthma home remedies

In general, over-the-counter (OTC) medicines and alternative remedies aren’t encouraged as treatments for asthma. If not treated properly, asthma can be life-threatening.

However, these home remedies may help stop symptoms from escalating and may be effective in an emergency:

Coffee or caffeinated tea

A chemical in caffeine acts similarly to the asthma drug theophylline. It opens up airways and may ease symptoms of asthma for up to four hours.

Purchase coffee and tea online.

Essential oils

Inhaling eucalyptus essential oil may ease breathing difficulties brought on by asthma. Lavender and basil essential oils also show promise. However, for some individuals, inhaling essential oils may make asthma worse. Strong smells and chemicals can trigger asthma or worsen symptoms.

Find eucalyptuslavender, and basilessential oils online.

Mustard oil

This fatty oil, made from pressed mustard seeds, can be massaged into the skin to help open airways. Mustard oil is different than mustard essential oil, a medicinal oil which shouldn’t be applied directly to the skin.

Shop for mustard oil.

Other home remedies may help ease symptoms of an asthma attack. Read about even more home remedies that can allow you to breathe more efficiently.

Bronchial asthma

Bronchial asthma is simply another name for the most common type of asthma. Symptoms include coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

Unless a specific type of asthma is mentioned, most references made to asthma are about bronchial asthma.

Bronchitis vs. asthma

Despite having similar symptoms,bronchitis and asthma aren’t related conditions. They both lead to inflamed airways that can make breathing difficult, but key distinctions separate the two conditions.

For example, bronchitis causes a thick mucus when you coughfever, chills, and body aches. Asthma doesn’t cause these symptoms.

Like asthma, bronchitis can also be acute— that is, treatment will end the symptoms — or chronic. Both chronic bronchitis and chronic asthma need to be treated daily in order to avoid worsening symptoms. Learn more about the similarities and differences between asthma and bronchitis.

Types of asthma

The most common type of asthma is bronchial asthma, which affects thebronchi in the lungs.

Additional forms of asthma includechildhood asthma and adult-onset asthma. In adult-onset asthma, symptoms don’t appear until at least age 20.

Other types of asthma are described below.

Allergic asthma (extrinsic asthma)

Allergens trigger this type of asthma. These might include:

Allergic asthma is more likely to beseasonal because it often goes hand-in-hand with seasonal allergies.

Nonallergic asthma (intrinsic asthma)

Irritants in the air not related to allergies trigger this type of asthma. Irritants might include:

Occupational asthma

Occupational asthma is a type of asthma induced by triggers in the workplace. These include:

  • dust
  • dyes
  • gases and fumes
  • industrial chemicals
  • animal proteins
  • rubber latex

These irritants can exist in a wide range of industries, including farming, textiles, woodworking, and manufacturing.

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB)

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) usually affects people within a few minutes of starting exercise and up to 10–15 minutes after physical activity. This condition was previously known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA).

Up to 90 percent of people with asthma also experience EIB, but not everyone with EIB will have other types of asthma.

Nocturnal asthma

In this type of asthma, symptoms worsen at night.

Triggers that are thought to bring on symptoms at night include heartburn, pet dander, and dust mites. The body’s natural sleep cycle may also trigger nocturnal asthma.

Cough-variant asthma (CVA)

Cough-variant asthma doesn’t have classic asthma symptoms of wheezing and shortness of breath. CVA is characterized by a persistent, dry cough. next will be herbal way to cure asthma

COUGH AND SIGNS

coughing is your body’ ways of getting rid of an irritant, when some thing irritates your throat or airway , your nervous system send an alert to your brain , your brain response by telling the muscles im your chest and abdomen to contract and expel a burs.

A cough is an important defensive reflex that helps protect your body from irritants like MUCUS , SMOKE, AND ALLERGENS such as dust, mold, and pollen

COUGH CAN BE DESCRIBED BY

1) behaviour or experience: when and why does the cough happen ? is it at night, after eating, while exercise

2) characteristics. how does your cough sound or feel ? Hacking, wet , dry?

3) Duration: does your cough curse related than two weeks , six weeks , more than eight weeks?

4) Effect . does your cough cause related symptoms such as urinary incontinence, vomiting or sleeplessness

5) Grade: How bad is it? is it annoying peristent, or debilitating ?

TYPES OF COUGH

1) wet cough, 2) Dry cough, 3) Paroxysmal cough , 4) Crop cough. in this case we shall explain it one after the other and it remedy, but first we start with wet cough.

WET COUGH :





wet cough is also called a productive cough, is a cough that typically brings mucus. 
cough are commonly caused by a cold or the flu , they can come slowly or quickly and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as 1) runny nose, 2) post nasal drip, 3) fatigued. wet cough sound (wet) because your body is pushing mucus out of your respiratory system, which includes your throat, nose , airway, and lungs. if you have a wet cough , you may feel like there’s something stuck or dripping at the back of your throat or in your chest . some of your cough will bring mucus into your mouth.
wet coughs can be acute and last less than three weeks , or chronic last longer than eight weeks in adult or four weeks in children. the duration of a cough includes
1) cold or flu
2) pneumonia
3) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) including emphysema and chronic bronchitis
4) acute bronchitis
5) asthma.
cough in babies , toddlers, and children that last less than three week are almost always caused by a cold or flu .
REMEDIES FOR A WET CO
UGH
1) babies and toddiers. treat with a cool _ mist humidifier. you can also use saline drops in nasal passages then clean the nose with a bulb syringe. Don’t give over the counter (otc) cough medication to babies or toddlers under the age of two

2) CHILDREN. a small clinical trial found that 1.5 teaspoons of honey given a half hour before bed time reduces cough and encourage better sleep in children age one and other

ADULT. adult can treat acute wet coughs with otc coughs and could symptom relieving medications or honey. if cough persists for longer than three weeks , antibiotics therapy or other treatments may be required

DRY COUGH: A dry cough is that does n’t bring up mucus . it may feel likes you have a tickle in the back of your throat triggering your cough reflex, giving you hacking cough


Dry cough are often caused by upper respiratory infections, such as a cold or the flu. inboth children and adults, it’s common for dry coughs to linger for several weeks after a cold or flu has passed. other possible causes of dry cough includes
1) laryngitis
2) sore throat
3) croup
4) tonsillitis
5) sinusitis
6) asthma
7) allergies
gastroesophageal reflux disease medication, especially (ACE) inhibitors.
exposure to irritant such as air pollution dust or smoke

REMEDIES OF DRY COUGH

1) Babies and toddiers. in babies and toddlers, dry cough typically don’t required treatment. A humidifier can help make them more comfortable
2) older children . A humidifier will help keep their respiratory system from drying out
3) A Paroxysmal cough : A Paroxysmal cough is a cough with intermittent attacks of violent , uncontrollable cough . A Paroxysmal cough feels exhausting and painful. people struggle to get a breath and may vomit.
pertussis, also known as whooping cough , is a bacterial infection that causes violent coughing fits . During whooping cough attacks, the lungs release all the oxygen they have , causing people to inhale violently with a ”whoop” sound
Paroxysmal cough are frequently caused by whooping cough , other possible causes of a bad coughing fit include
1) asthma
2) copd
3) pneumonia
4) tuberculosis
5) choking
REMEDIES FOR A WHOOPING COUGH
whooping cough is been treat with antibiotics

2) CROUP COUGH
group cogh is a viral infection that typically affects children ages and young . crop causes the upper airway to become irritated and swollen. young children ready have narrows the airways . when swelling further narrows the airway, it becomes difficult to breathe
REMEDIES FOR A GROUP COUGH
1) placing a cool _ mist humidifier in their bed room
2) bringing the child into a steam filled bathroom for up to ten minutes
3) taking the child out side to breathe cool air
4) taking the child for a ride in the car with window partially open to the cooler air
5) giving childrenacetaminophen ( Tylenol) for fever as directed by your prediatrician
6) making sure your child drink plenty of fluid and gets of rest
7) for several cases, children may need a nebulized breathing treatment of prescription sterold to reduce inflammation

CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM GROUP COUGH
WAYS IN WHICH GROUP COUGH CAN BE TREATED
1) sesame oil
2) menthanoll
3) Duck liver
4) codeine
5) chocolate

GONORRHEA INFECTIONS








GONORRHEA is a sexual transmitted diseases (STD) . you get it from having sex with some one who is infected with it, you may have heard people call it ” the clap” . Both men and women can get it, though men get it more often than women
SYMPTOMS OF GONORRHEA IN MALES
1) Burning when you pee
2) painful or swollen testicles
3) white, yellow, or green discharge from your penise
SYMPTOMS OF GONORRHEA IN FEMALE
some time women do not notice any symptom but the symptoms are
1) Burning or pain when you pee
2) bleeding between periods
3) more vaginal discharge than is typical
4) pain in your belly
5) pain when you have sex.
gonorrhea infection in your rectum , or rear end , may cause , 1) bleeding , 2) Discharge, 3) Itching, 4) pain when you pee, 5) soreness .
Gonorrhea complications: if you don’t get treatment, gonorrhea can cause serious and long _ lasting problems, including
1) increased chance of getting HIV
2) infection in other parts of your body like your skin or joints
3) INFERTILITY
GONORRHEA CAN BE TREATED WITH ANTIBIOTICS LISTED BELOW
1) CEFTRIAXONE
2) AZITHROMYCIN ( ZITHROMAX, ZMAX)
3) DOXYCYCLINE ( MONODOX, VIBRAMYCIN)
CEFTRIAXONE is given as a one time injection usually a dose of 250 milligrams (mg) the other two antibiotics are taken by mouth .
combining oral and AZITHROMYCIN with either oral gemifloxacin ( fastive) or injectable gentamicin may be helpful if you are allergic to CEFTRIAXONE .
that medication is in a class of drugs known as cephalosporin antibiotics.
thanks the almighty one for it wisdom , next book will write about how to cure gonorrhea infection through Heber process .