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BACK PAIN

Back pain is a common reason for absence from work and for seeking medical treatment. It can be uncomfortable and debilitating.
It can result from injury, activity and some medical conditions. Back pain can affect people of any age, for different reasons. As people get older, the chance of developingTrusted Source
 lower back pain increases, due to factors such as previous occupation and degenerative disk disease.
Lower back pain may be linked to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves, lower back muscles, abdominal and pelvic internal organs, and the skin around the lumbar area.
Pain in the upper back may be due to disorders of the aorta, tumors in the chest, and spine inflammation.


Causes



Share on PinterestProblems with the spine such as osteoporosis can lead to back pain.
The human back is composed of a complex structure of muscles, ligaments, tendons, disks, and bones, which work together to support the body and enable us to move around.
The segments of the spine are cushioned with cartilage-like pads called disks.
Problems with any of these components can lead to back pain. In some cases of back pain, its cause remains unclear.
Damage can result from strain, medical conditions, and poor posture, among others.
Strain
Back pain commonly stems from strain, tension, or injury. Frequent causes of back pain are:
strained muscles or ligaments
a muscle spasm
muscle tension
damaged disks
injuries, fractures, or falls
Activities that can lead to strains or spasms include:
lifting something improperly
lifting something that is too heavy
making an abrupt and awkward movement
Structural problems
A number of structural problems may also result in back pain.
Ruptured disks: Each vertebra in the spine is cushioned by disks. If the disk ruptures there will be more pressure on a nerve, resulting in back pain.
Bulging disks: In much the same way as ruptured disks, a bulging disk can result in more pressure on a nerve.
Sciatica: A sharp and shooting pain travels through the buttock and down the back of the leg, caused by a bulging or herniated disk pressing on a nerve.
Arthritis: Osteoarthritis can cause problems with the joints in the hips, lower back, and other places. In some cases, the space around the spinal cord narrows. This is known as spinal stenosis.
Abnormal curvature of the spine: If the spine curves in an unusual way, back pain can result. An example isscoliosis, in which the spine curves to the side.
Osteoporosis: Bones, including the vertebrae of the spine, become brittle and porous, making compression fractures more likely.
Kidney problems: Kidney stones orkidney infection can cause back pain.
Movement and posture
Back pain can also result from some everyday activities or poor posture.
Examples include:



Share on Pinterest
twisting
coughing or sneezing
muscle tension
over-stretching
bending awkwardly or for long periods
pushing, pulling, lifting, or carrying something
standing or sitting for long periods
straining the neck forward, such as when driving or using a computer
long driving sessions without a break, even when not hunched
sleeping on a mattress that does not support the body and keep the spine straight
Other causes
Some medical conditions can lead to back pain.
Cauda equina syndrome: The cauda equine is a bundle of spinal nerve roots that arise from the lower end of the spinal cord. Symptoms include a dull pain in the lower back and upper buttocks, as well as numbness in the buttocks, genitalia, and thighs. There are sometimes bowel and bladder function disturbances.
Cancer of the spine: A tumor on the spine may press against a nerve, resulting in back pain.
Infection of the spine: A fever and a tender, warm area on the back could be due to an infection of the spine.
Other infections: Pelvic inflammatory disease, bladder, or kidney infections may also lead to back pain.
Sleep disorders: Individuals with sleep disorders are more likely to experience back pain, compared with others.
Shingles: An infection that can affect the nerves may lead to back pain. This depends on which nerves are affected.


Risk factors
The following factors are linked to a higher risk of developing low back pain:
occupational activities
pregnancy
a sedentary lifestyle
poor physical fitness
older age
obesity and excess weight
smoking
strenuous physical exercise or work, especially if done incorrectly
genetic factors
medical conditions, such as arthritisand cancer
Lower back pain also tends to be more common in womenTrusted Source
 than in men, possibly due to hormonal factors. Stressanxiety, and mood disorders have also been linked to back pain.



MEDICAL NEWS TODAY NEWSLETTER
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Expect in-depth, science-backed toplines of our best stories every day. Tap in and keep your curiosity satisfied.

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Symptoms
The main symptom of back pain is an ache or pain anywhere in the back, and sometimes all the way down to the buttocks and legs.
Some back issues can cause pain in other parts of the body, depending on the nerves affected.
The pain often goes away without treatment, but if it occurs with any of the following people should see their doctor:
weight loss
fever
inflammation or swelling on the back
persistent back pain, where lying down or resting does not help
pain down the legs
pain that reaches below the knees
a recent injury, blow or trauma to the back
urinary incontinence
difficulty urinating
fecal incontinence, or loss of control over bowel movements
numbness around the genitals
numbness around the anus
numbness around the buttocks
When to see a doctor
You should seek medical help if you experience any numbness or tingling, or if you have back pain:
that does not improve with rest
after an injury or fall
with numbness in the legs
with weakness
with fever
with unexplained weight loss

Diagnosis
A doctor will usually be able to diagnose back pain after asking about symptoms and carrying out a physical examination.
An imaging scan and other tests may be required if:
back pain appears to result from an injury
there may be underlying cause that needs treatment
the pain persists over a long period
An X-ray, MRI, or CT scan can give information about the state of the soft tissues in the back.
X-rays can show the alignment of the bones and detect signs of arthritis or broken bones, but they may not reveal damage in the muscles, spinal cord, nerves, or disks.
MRI or CT scans can reveal herniated disks or problems with tissue, tendons, nerves, ligaments, blood vessels, muscles, and bones.
Bone scans can detect bone tumors or compression fractures caused byosteoporosis. A radioactive substance or tracer is injected into a vein. The tracer collects in the bones and helps the doctor detect bone problems with the aid of a special camera.
Electromyography or EMG measures the electrical impulses produced by nerves in response to muscles. This can confirm nerve compression, which may occur with a herniated disk or spinal stenosis.
The doctor may also order a blood test if infection is suspected.
Other types of diagnosis



Share on Pinterest
A chiropractor will diagnose through touch, or palpation, and a visual examination. Chiropractic is known as a direct approach, with a strong focus on adjusting the spinal joints. A chiropractor may also want to see the results of imaging scans and any blood and urine tests.
An osteopath also diagnoses through palpation and visual inspection. Osteopathy involves slow and rhythmic stretching, known as mobilization, pressure or indirect techniques, and manipulation of joints and muscles.
A physical therapist focuses on diagnosing problems in the joints and soft tissues of the body.
Chronic or acute pain?
Back pain is categorized into two types:
Acute pain starts suddenly and lasts for up to 6 weeks.
Chronic or long-term pain develops over a longer period, lasts for over 3 months, and causes ongoing problems.
If a person has both occasional bouts of more intense pain and fairly continuous mild back pain, it can be hard for a doctor to determine whether they have acute or chronic back pain.






Treatment
Back pain usually resolves with rest and home remedies, but sometimes medical treatment is necessary.
Home treatments
Over-the-counter (OTC) pain relief medication, usually nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), such as ibuprofen, can relieve discomfort. Applying a hot compress or an ice pack to the painful area may also reduce pain.
Resting from strenuous activity can help, but moving around will ease stiffness, reduce pain, and prevent muscles from weakening.
Medical treatment
If home treatments do not relieve back pain, a doctor may recommend the following medication, physical therapy, or both.
Medication: Back pain that does not respond well to OTC painkillers may require a prescription NSAID. Codeine or hydrocodone, which are narcotics, may be prescribed for short periods. These require close monitoring by the doctor. In some cases, muscle relaxants may be used.
Antidepressantssuch as amitriptylineTrusted Source, may be prescribed, but research is ongoing at to their effectiveness, and the evidence is conflicting.
Physical therapy: Applying heat, ice,ultrasound, and electrical stimulation — as well as some muscle-release techniques to the back muscles and soft tissues — may help alleviate pain.
As the pain improves, the physical therapist may introduce some flexibility and strength exercises for the back and abdominal muscles. Techniques for improving posture may also help.
The patient will be encouraged to practice the techniques regularly, even after the pain has gone, to prevent back pain recurrence.
Cortisone injections: If other options are not effective, these may be injected into the epidural space, around the spinal cord. Cortisone is an anti-inflammatory drug. It helps reduce inflammation around the nerve roots. Injections may also be used to numb areas thought to be causing the pain.
Botox: Botox (botulism toxin), according to some early studies, are thought to reduce painTrusted Source
 by paralyzing sprained muscles in spasm. These injections are effective for about 3 to 4 months.
Traction: Pulleys and weights are used to stretch the back. This may result in a herniated disk moving back into position. It can also relieve pain, but only while traction is applied.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT): CBTcan help manage chronic back pain by encouraging new ways of thinking. It may include relaxation techniques and ways of maintaining a positive attitude. Studies have found that patients with CBT tend to become more active and do exercise, resulting in a lower risk of back pain recurrence.
Complementary therapies
Complementary therapies may be used alongside conventional therapies or on their own.
Chiropractic, osteopathy, shiatsu, andacupuncture may help relieve back pain, as well as encouraging the patient to feel relaxed.
An osteopath specializes in treating the skeleton and muscles.
A chiropractor treats joint, muscle and bone problems. The main focus is the spine.
Shiatsu, also known as finger pressure therapy, is a type of massage where pressure is applied along energy lines in the body. The shiatsu therapist applies pressure with the fingers, thumbs and elbows.
Acupuncture originates from China. It consists of inserting fine needles and specific points in the body. Acupuncture can help the body release its natural painkillers — endorphins — as well as stimulating nerve and muscle tissue.
Yoga involves specific poses, movements, and breathing exercises. Some may help strengthen the back muscles and improve posture. Care must be taken that exercises do not make back pain worse.
Studies on complementary therapies have given mixed results. Some people have experienced significant benefit, while others have not. It is important, when considering alternative therapies, to use a well qualified and registered therapist.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a popular therapy for patients with chronic back pain. The TENS machine delivers small electric pulses into the body through electrodes that are placed on the skin.
Experts believe TENS encourages the body to produce endorphins and may block pain signals returning to the brain. Studies on TENS have provided mixed results. Some revealed no benefits, while others indicated that it could be helpful for some people.
A TENS machine should be used under the direction of a doctor or health professional.
It should not be used by someone who is:
is pregnant
has a history of epilepsy
has a pacemaker
has a history of heart disease
TENS is considered “safe, noninvasive, inexpensive, and patient friendly,” and it appears to reduce pain, but more evidence is neededTrusted Source
 to confirm its effectiveness in improving activity levels.
TENS machines and other pain relief methods can be purchased online.
Surgery
Surgery for back pain is very rare. If a patient has a herniated disk surgery may be an option, especially if there is persistent pain and nerve compression which can lead to muscle weakness.
Examples of surgical procedures include:
Fusion: Two vertebrae are joined together, with a bone graft inserted between them. The vertebrae are splinted together with metal plates, screws or cages. There is a significantly greater risk for arthritis to subsequently develop in the adjoining vertebrae.
Artificial disk: An artificial disk is inserted; it replaces the cushion between two vertebrae.
Diskectomy: A portion of a disk may be removed if it is irritating or pressing against a nerve.
Partially removing a vertebra: A small section of a vertebra may be removed if it is pinching the spinal cord or nerves.
Injecting cells to regenerate spine discs:Scientists from Duke University, North Carolina, developed new biomaterials that can deliver a booster shot of reparative cells to the nucleus pulposus, effectively eliminating pain caused by degenerative disc disease.
Prevention


Steps to lower the risk of developing back pain consist mainly of addressing some of the risk factors.
Exercise: Regular exercise helps build strength and control body weight. Guided, low-impact aerobic activities can boost heart health without straining or jerking the back. Before starting any exercise program, talk to a health care professional.
There are two main types of exercise that people can do to reduce the risk of back pain:
Core-strengthening exercises work the abdominal and back muscles, helping to strengthen muscles that protect the back.
Flexibility training aims at improving core flexibility, including the spine, hips, and upper legs.
Diet: Make sure your diet includes enoughcalcium and vitamin D, as these are needed for bone health. A healthful diet also helps control body weight.
Smoking: A significantly higher percentage of smokers have back pain incidences compared to non-smokers of the same age, height, and weight.
Body weight: The weight people carry and where they carry it affects the risk of developing back pain. The difference in back pain risk between obese and normal-weight individuals is considerable. People who carry their weight in the abdominal area versus the buttocks and hip area are also at greater risk.
Posture when standing: Make sure you have a neutral pelvic position. Stand upright, head facing forward, back straight, and balance your weight evenly on both feet. Keep your legs straight and your head in line with your spine.



Share on Pinterest
Posture when sitting: A good seat for working should have good back support, arm rests and a swivel base. When sitting, try to keep your knees and hips level and keep your feet flat on the floor, or use a footstool. You should ideally be able to sit upright with support in the small of your back. If you are using a keyboard, make sure your elbows are at right-angles and that your forearms are horizontal.
Lifting: When lifting things, use your legs to do the lifting, rather than your back.
Keep your back as straight as you can, keeping your feet apart with one leg slightly forward so you can maintain balance. Bend only at the knees, hold the weight close to your body, and straighten the legs while changing the position of your back as little as possible.
Bending your back initially is unavoidable, but when you bend your back try not to stoop, and be sure to tighten your stomach muscles so that your pelvis is pulled in. Most important, do not straighten your legs before lifting, or you will be using your back for most of the work.
Do not lift and twist at the same time: If something is particularly heavy, see if you can lift it with someone else. While you are lifting keep looking straight ahead, not up or down, so that the back of your neck is like a continuous straight line from your spine.
Moving things: It is better for your back to push things across the floor, using your leg strength, rather than pulling them.
Shoes: Flat shoes place less of a strain on the back.
Driving: It is important to have proper support for your back. Make sure the wing mirrors are properly positioned so you do not need to twist. The pedals should be squarely in front of your feet. If you are on a long journey, have plenty of breaks. Get out of the car and walk around.
Bed: You should have a mattress that keeps your spine straight, while at the same time supporting the weight of your shoulders and buttocks. Use a pillow, but not one that forces your neck into a steep angle.Back pain is a common reason for absence from work and for seeking medical treatment. It can be uncomfortable and debilitating.
It can result from injury, activity and some medical conditions. Back pain can affect people of any age, for different reasons. As people get older, the chance of developingTrusted Source
 lower back pain increases, due to factors such as previous occupation and degenerative disk disease.
Lower back pain may be linked to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves, lower back muscles, abdominal and pelvic internal organs, and the skin around the lumbar area.
Pain in the upper back may be due to disorders of the aorta, tumors in the chest, and spine inflammation.


Causes



Share on PinterestProblems with the spine such as osteoporosis can lead to back pain.
The human back is composed of a complex structure of muscles, ligaments, tendons, disks, and bones, which work together to support the body and enable us to move around.
The segments of the spine are cushioned with cartilage-like pads called disks.
Problems with any of these components can lead to back pain. In some cases of back pain, its cause remains unclear.
Damage can result from strain, medical conditions, and poor posture, among others.
Strain
Back pain commonly stems from strain, tension, or injury. Frequent causes of back pain are:
strained muscles or ligaments
a muscle spasm
muscle tension
damaged disks
injuries, fractures, or falls
Activities that can lead to strains or spasms include:
lifting something improperly
lifting something that is too heavy
making an abrupt and awkward movement
Structural problems
A number of structural problems may also result in back pain.
Ruptured disks: Each vertebra in the spine is cushioned by disks. If the disk ruptures there will be more pressure on a nerve, resulting in back pain.
Bulging disks: In much the same way as ruptured disks, a bulging disk can result in more pressure on a nerve.
Sciatica: A sharp and shooting pain travels through the buttock and down the back of the leg, caused by a bulging or herniated disk pressing on a nerve.
Arthritis: Osteoarthritis can cause problems with the joints in the hips, lower back, and other places. In some cases, the space around the spinal cord narrows. This is known as spinal stenosis.
Abnormal curvature of the spine: If the spine curves in an unusual way, back pain can result. An example isscoliosis, in which the spine curves to the side.
Osteoporosis: Bones, including the vertebrae of the spine, become brittle and porous, making compression fractures more likely.
Kidney problems: Kidney stones orkidney infection can cause back pain.
Movement and posture
Back pain can also result from some everyday activities or poor posture.
Examples include:



Share on Pinterest
twisting
coughing or sneezing
muscle tension
over-stretching
bending awkwardly or for long periods
pushing, pulling, lifting, or carrying something
standing or sitting for long periods
straining the neck forward, such as when driving or using a computer
long driving sessions without a break, even when not hunched
sleeping on a mattress that does not support the body and keep the spine straight
Other causes
Some medical conditions can lead to back pain.
Cauda equina syndrome: The cauda equine is a bundle of spinal nerve roots that arise from the lower end of the spinal cord. Symptoms include a dull pain in the lower back and upper buttocks, as well as numbness in the buttocks, genitalia, and thighs. There are sometimes bowel and bladder function disturbances.
Cancer of the spine: A tumor on the spine may press against a nerve, resulting in back pain.
Infection of the spine: A fever and a tender, warm area on the back could be due to an infection of the spine.
Other infections: Pelvic inflammatory disease, bladder, or kidney infections may also lead to back pain.
Sleep disorders: Individuals with sleep disorders are more likely to experience back pain, compared with others.
Shingles: An infection that can affect the nerves may lead to back pain. This depends on which nerves are affected.


Risk factors
The following factors are linked to a higher risk of developing low back pain:
occupational activities
pregnancy
a sedentary lifestyle
poor physical fitness
older age
obesity and excess weight
smoking
strenuous physical exercise or work, especially if done incorrectly
genetic factors
medical conditions, such as arthritisand cancer
Lower back pain also tends to be more common in womenTrusted Source
 than in men, possibly due to hormonal factors. Stressanxiety, and mood disorders have also been linked to back pain.



MEDICAL NEWS TODAY NEWSLETTER
Stay in the know. Get our free daily newsletter
Expect in-depth, science-backed toplines of our best stories every day. Tap in and keep your curiosity satisfied.

SIGN UP NOW
Your privacy is important to us

Symptoms
The main symptom of back pain is an ache or pain anywhere in the back, and sometimes all the way down to the buttocks and legs.
Some back issues can cause pain in other parts of the body, depending on the nerves affected.
The pain often goes away without treatment, but if it occurs with any of the following people should see their doctor:
weight loss
fever
inflammation or swelling on the back
persistent back pain, where lying down or resting does not help
pain down the legs
pain that reaches below the knees
a recent injury, blow or trauma to the back
urinary incontinence
difficulty urinating
fecal incontinence, or loss of control over bowel movements
numbness around the genitals
numbness around the anus
numbness around the buttocks
When to see a doctor
You should seek medical help if you experience any numbness or tingling, or if you have back pain:
that does not improve with rest
after an injury or fall
with numbness in the legs
with weakness
with fever
with unexplained weight loss

Diagnosis
A doctor will usually be able to diagnose back pain after asking about symptoms and carrying out a physical examination.
An imaging scan and other tests may be required if:
back pain appears to result from an injury
there may be underlying cause that needs treatment
the pain persists over a long period
An X-ray, MRI, or CT scan can give information about the state of the soft tissues in the back.
X-rays can show the alignment of the bones and detect signs of arthritis or broken bones, but they may not reveal damage in the muscles, spinal cord, nerves, or disks.
MRI or CT scans can reveal herniated disks or problems with tissue, tendons, nerves, ligaments, blood vessels, muscles, and bones.
Bone scans can detect bone tumors or compression fractures caused byosteoporosis. A radioactive substance or tracer is injected into a vein. The tracer collects in the bones and helps the doctor detect bone problems with the aid of a special camera.
Electromyography or EMG measures the electrical impulses produced by nerves in response to muscles. This can confirm nerve compression, which may occur with a herniated disk or spinal stenosis.
The doctor may also order a blood test if infection is suspected.
Other types of diagnosis



Share on Pinterest
A chiropractor will diagnose through touch, or palpation, and a visual examination. Chiropractic is known as a direct approach, with a strong focus on adjusting the spinal joints. A chiropractor may also want to see the results of imaging scans and any blood and urine tests.
An osteopath also diagnoses through palpation and visual inspection. Osteopathy involves slow and rhythmic stretching, known as mobilization, pressure or indirect techniques, and manipulation of joints and muscles.
A physical therapist focuses on diagnosing problems in the joints and soft tissues of the body.
Chronic or acute pain?
Back pain is categorized into two types:
Acute pain starts suddenly and lasts for up to 6 weeks.
Chronic or long-term pain develops over a longer period, lasts for over 3 months, and causes ongoing problems.
If a person has both occasional bouts of more intense pain and fairly continuous mild back pain, it can be hard for a doctor to determine whether they have acute or chronic back pain.






Treatment
Back pain usually resolves with rest and home remedies, but sometimes medical treatment is necessary.
Home treatments
Over-the-counter (OTC) pain relief medication, usually nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), such as ibuprofen, can relieve discomfort. Applying a hot compress or an ice pack to the painful area may also reduce pain.
Resting from strenuous activity can help, but moving around will ease stiffness, reduce pain, and prevent muscles from weakening.
Medical treatment
If home treatments do not relieve back pain, a doctor may recommend the following medication, physical therapy, or both.
Medication: Back pain that does not respond well to OTC painkillers may require a prescription NSAID. Codeine or hydrocodone, which are narcotics, may be prescribed for short periods. These require close monitoring by the doctor. In some cases, muscle relaxants may be used.
Antidepressantssuch as amitriptylineTrusted Source, may be prescribed, but research is ongoing at to their effectiveness, and the evidence is conflicting.
Physical therapy: Applying heat, ice,ultrasound, and electrical stimulation — as well as some muscle-release techniques to the back muscles and soft tissues — may help alleviate pain.
As the pain improves, the physical therapist may introduce some flexibility and strength exercises for the back and abdominal muscles. Techniques for improving posture may also help.
The patient will be encouraged to practice the techniques regularly, even after the pain has gone, to prevent back pain recurrence.
Cortisone injections: If other options are not effective, these may be injected into the epidural space, around the spinal cord. Cortisone is an anti-inflammatory drug. It helps reduce inflammation around the nerve roots. Injections may also be used to numb areas thought to be causing the pain.
Botox: Botox (botulism toxin), according to some early studies, are thought to reduce painTrusted Source
 by paralyzing sprained muscles in spasm. These injections are effective for about 3 to 4 months.
Traction: Pulleys and weights are used to stretch the back. This may result in a herniated disk moving back into position. It can also relieve pain, but only while traction is applied.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT): CBTcan help manage chronic back pain by encouraging new ways of thinking. It may include relaxation techniques and ways of maintaining a positive attitude. Studies have found that patients with CBT tend to become more active and do exercise, resulting in a lower risk of back pain recurrence.
Complementary therapies
Complementary therapies may be used alongside conventional therapies or on their own.
Chiropractic, osteopathy, shiatsu, andacupuncture may help relieve back pain, as well as encouraging the patient to feel relaxed.
An osteopath specializes in treating the skeleton and muscles.
A chiropractor treats joint, muscle and bone problems. The main focus is the spine.
Shiatsu, also known as finger pressure therapy, is a type of massage where pressure is applied along energy lines in the body. The shiatsu therapist applies pressure with the fingers, thumbs and elbows.
Acupuncture originates from China. It consists of inserting fine needles and specific points in the body. Acupuncture can help the body release its natural painkillers — endorphins — as well as stimulating nerve and muscle tissue.
Yoga involves specific poses, movements, and breathing exercises. Some may help strengthen the back muscles and improve posture. Care must be taken that exercises do not make back pain worse.
Studies on complementary therapies have given mixed results. Some people have experienced significant benefit, while others have not. It is important, when considering alternative therapies, to use a well qualified and registered therapist.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a popular therapy for patients with chronic back pain. The TENS machine delivers small electric pulses into the body through electrodes that are placed on the skin.
Experts believe TENS encourages the body to produce endorphins and may block pain signals returning to the brain. Studies on TENS have provided mixed results. Some revealed no benefits, while others indicated that it could be helpful for some people.
A TENS machine should be used under the direction of a doctor or health professional.
It should not be used by someone who is:
is pregnant
has a history of epilepsy
has a pacemaker
has a history of heart disease
TENS is considered “safe, noninvasive, inexpensive, and patient friendly,” and it appears to reduce pain, but more evidence is neededTrusted Source
 to confirm its effectiveness in improving activity levels.
TENS machines and other pain relief methods can be purchased online.
Surgery
Surgery for back pain is very rare. If a patient has a herniated disk surgery may be an option, especially if there is persistent pain and nerve compression which can lead to muscle weakness.
Examples of surgical procedures include:
Fusion: Two vertebrae are joined together, with a bone graft inserted between them. The vertebrae are splinted together with metal plates, screws or cages. There is a significantly greater risk for arthritis to subsequently develop in the adjoining vertebrae.
Artificial disk: An artificial disk is inserted; it replaces the cushion between two vertebrae.
Diskectomy: A portion of a disk may be removed if it is irritating or pressing against a nerve.
Partially removing a vertebra: A small section of a vertebra may be removed if it is pinching the spinal cord or nerves.
Injecting cells to regenerate spine discs:Scientists from Duke University, North Carolina, developed new biomaterials that can deliver a booster shot of reparative cells to the nucleus pulposus, effectively eliminating pain caused by degenerative disc disease.
Prevention


Steps to lower the risk of developing back pain consist mainly of addressing some of the risk factors.
Exercise: Regular exercise helps build strength and control body weight. Guided, low-impact aerobic activities can boost heart health without straining or jerking the back. Before starting any exercise program, talk to a health care professional.
There are two main types of exercise that people can do to reduce the risk of back pain:
Core-strengthening exercises work the abdominal and back muscles, helping to strengthen muscles that protect the back.
Flexibility training aims at improving core flexibility, including the spine, hips, and upper legs.
Diet: Make sure your diet includes enoughcalcium and vitamin D, as these are needed for bone health. A healthful diet also helps control body weight.
Smoking: A significantly higher percentage of smokers have back pain incidences compared to non-smokers of the same age, height, and weight.
Body weight: The weight people carry and where they carry it affects the risk of developing back pain. The difference in back pain risk between obese and normal-weight individuals is considerable. People who carry their weight in the abdominal area versus the buttocks and hip area are also at greater risk.
Posture when standing: Make sure you have a neutral pelvic position. Stand upright, head facing forward, back straight, and balance your weight evenly on both feet. Keep your legs straight and your head in line with your spine.



Share on Pinterest
Posture when sitting: A good seat for working should have good back support, arm rests and a swivel base. When sitting, try to keep your knees and hips level and keep your feet flat on the floor, or use a footstool. You should ideally be able to sit upright with support in the small of your back. If you are using a keyboard, make sure your elbows are at right-angles and that your forearms are horizontal.
Lifting: When lifting things, use your legs to do the lifting, rather than your back.
Keep your back as straight as you can, keeping your feet apart with one leg slightly forward so you can maintain balance. Bend only at the knees, hold the weight close to your body, and straighten the legs while changing the position of your back as little as possible.
Bending your back initially is unavoidable, but when you bend your back try not to stoop, and be sure to tighten your stomach muscles so that your pelvis is pulled in. Most important, do not straighten your legs before lifting, or you will be using your back for most of the work.
Do not lift and twist at the same time: If something is particularly heavy, see if you can lift it with someone else. While you are lifting keep looking straight ahead, not up or down, so that the back of your neck is like a continuous straight line from your spine.
Moving things: It is better for your back to push things across the floor, using your leg strength, rather than pulling them.
Shoes: Flat shoes place less of a strain on the back.
Driving: It is important to have proper support for your back. Make sure the wing mirrors are properly positioned so you do not need to twist. The pedals should be squarely in front of your feet. If you are on a long journey, have plenty of breaks. Get out of the car and walk around.
Bed: You should have a mattress that keeps your spine straight, while at the same time supporting the weight of your shoulders and buttocks. Use a pillow, but not one that forces your neck into a steep angle.

y

FALLOPIAN TUBES

The fallopian tubes extend from the uterus, one on each side, and both open near an ovary. During ovulation, the released egg (ovum) enters a fallopian tube and is swept along by tiny hairs towards the uterus. 

Salpingitis is inflammation of the fallopian tubes. Almost all cases are caused by bacterial infection, including sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhoea and chlamydia. The inflammation prompts extra fluid secretion or even pus to collect inside the fallopian tube. Infection of one tube normally leads to infection of the other, since the bacteria migrates via the nearby lymph vessels. 

Salpingitis is one of the most common causes of female infertility. Without prompt treatment, the infection may permanently damage the fallopian tube so that the eggs released each menstrual cycle can’t meet up with sperm. Scarring and blockage of the fallopian tubes is the most frequent long-term complication of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and so this condition can sometimes be referred to as PID. However, the umbrella term of PID includes other infections of the female reproductive system, such as the uterus and ovaries.

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Symptoms of salpingitis

In milder cases, salpingitis may have no symptoms. This means the fallopian tubes may become damaged without the woman even realising she has an infection. The symptoms of salpingitis may include:

  • abnormal vaginal discharge, such as unusual colour or smell
  • spotting between periods
  • dysmenorrhoea (painful periods)
  • pain during ovulation
  • uncomfortable or painful sexual intercourse
  • fever
  • abdominal pain on both sides
  • lower back pain
  • frequent urination
  • nausea and vomiting
  • the symptoms usually appear after the menstrual period.

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Types of salpingitis

Salpingitis is usually categorised as either acute or chronic. In acute salpingitis, the fallopian tubes become red and swollen, and secrete extra fluid so that the inner walls of the tubes often stick together. The tubes may also stick to nearby structures such as the intestines. Sometimes, a fallopian tube may fill and bloat with pus. In rare cases, the tube ruptures and causes a dangerous infection of the abdominal cavity (peritonitis). Chronic salpingitis usually follows an acute attack. The infection is milder, longer lasting and may not produce many noticeable symptoms. 

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Causes of salpingitis

In nine out of 10 cases of salpingitis, bacteria are the cause. Some of the most common bacteria responsible for salpingitis include:

  • chlamydia
  • gonococcus (which causes gonorrhoea)
  • mycoplasma
  • staphylococcus
  • streptococcus.

The bacteria must gain access to the woman’s reproductive system for infection to take place. The bacteria can be introduced in a number of ways, including:

  • sexual intercourse
  • insertion of an IUD (intra-uterine device)
  • miscarriage
  • abortion
  • childbirth
  • appendicitis.

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Lifestyle risk factors of salpingitis

Lifestyle factors that significantly increase a woman’s risk of contracting salpingitis include:

  • engaging in sexual intercourse without a condom
  • prior infection with a sexually transmitted disease.

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Complications of salpingitis

Without treatment, salpingitis can cause a range of complications, including:

  • Further infection – the infection may spread to nearby structures, such as the ovaries or uterus.
  • Infection of sex partners – the woman’s partner or partners may contract the bacteria and become infected too.
  • Tubo-ovarian abscess – about 15 per cent of women with salpingitis develop an abscess, which requires hospitalisation.
  • Ectopic pregnancy – a blocked fallopian tube prevents the fertilised egg from entering the uterus. The embryo then starts growing inside the confined space of the fallopian tube. The risk of ectopic pregnancy for a woman with prior salpingitis or other form of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is around one in 20.
  • Infertility – the fallopian tube may become deformed or scarred to such an extent that the egg and sperm are unable to meet. After one bout of salpingitis or other PID, a woman’s risk of infertility is about 15 per cent. This rises to 50 per cent after three bouts.

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Diagnosis of salpingitis

Diagnosing salpingitis involves a number of tests, including:

  • general examination – to check for localised tenderness and enlarged lymph glands
  • pelvic examination – to check for tenderness and discharge
  • blood tests – to check the white blood cell count and other factors that indicate infection
  • mucus swab – a smear is taken to be cultured and examined in a laboratory so that the type of bacteria can be identified
  • laparoscopy – in some cases, the fallopian tubes may need to be viewed by a slender instrument inserted through abdominal incisions.

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Treatment for salpingitis

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Treatment depends on the severity of the condition, but may include:

  • antibiotics – to kill the infection, which is successful in around 85 per cent of cases
  • hospitalisation – including intravenous administration of antibiotics
  • surgery – if the condition resists drug treatment.

CRAMPS OCCURRING IN WOMEN

About dysmenorrhea
Menstruation occurs when the uterus sheds its lining once a month. Some pain, cramping, and discomfort during menstrual periods is normal. Excessive pain that causes you to miss work or school is not.
Painful menstruation is also called dysmenorrhea. There are two types of dysmenorrhea: primary and secondary.
Primary dysmenorrhea occurs in people who experience pain before and during menstruation. If you’ve had normal periods that become painful later in life, it may be secondary dysmenorrhea. A condition affecting the uterus or other pelvic organs, such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids, can cause this.



What are the causes?
It’s not always possible to identify the cause of painful menstrual periods. Some people are just at a higher risk of having painful periods.
These risks include:
being under age 20
having a family history of painful periods
smoking
having heavy bleeding with periods
having irregular periods
never having had a baby
reaching puberty before age 11
A hormone called prostaglandin triggers muscle contractions in your uterus that expel the lining. These contractions can cause pain and inflammation. The level of prostaglandin rises right before menstruation begins.
Painful menstrual periods can also be the result of an underlying medical condition, such as:
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). PMS is a common condition that’s caused by hormonal changes in the body occurring 1 to 2 weeks before menstruation begins. Symptoms typically go away after bleeding begins.
Endometriosis. This is a painful medical condition in which cells from the lining of the uterus grow in other parts of the body, usually on the fallopian tubes, ovaries, or tissue lining the pelvis.
Fibroids in the uterus. Fibroids are noncancerous tumors that can put pressure on the uterus or cause abnormal menstruation and pain, though they often don’t cause symptoms.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID is an infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries often caused by sexually transmitted bacteria that cause inflammation of the reproductive organs and pain.
Adenomyosis. This is a rare condition in which the uterine lining grows into the muscular wall of the uterus, causing inflammation, pressure, and pain. It can also cause longer or heavier periods.
Cervical stenosis. Cervical stenosis is a rare condition in which the cervix is so small or narrow that it slows menstrual flow, causing an increase of pressure inside the uterus that causes pain.


HEALTHLINE RESOURCES
Take our free 3-question diet quiz
Our free assessment ranks the best diets for you based on your answers to 3 quick questions.
FIND YOUR DIETS

Home treatment
At-home treatments can be helpful in relieving painful menstrual periods. Types of things to try at home include:
using a heating pad on your pelvic area or back
massaging your abdomen
taking a warm bath
doing regular physical exercise
eating light, nutritious meals
practicing relaxation techniques or yoga
taking anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen several days before you expect your period
taking vitamins and supplementssuch as:vitamin B-6
vitamin B-1
vitamin E
omega-3 fatty acids
calcium
magnesium
raising your legs or lying with your knees bent
reducing your intake of salt, alcohol, caffeine, and sugar toprevent bloating


When to call a doctor
If menstrual pain is interfering with your ability to perform basic tasks each month, it may be time to talk to a gynecologist.
Talk to your doctor about your symptoms and if you experience any of the following:
continuing pain after IUD placement
at least three painful menstrual periods
passing blood clots
cramping accompanied by diarrhea and nausea
pelvic pain when not menstruating
Sudden cramping or pelvic pain could be signs of infection. An untreated infection can cause scar tissue that damages the pelvic organs and may lead to infertility.
If you have symptoms of an infection, seek prompt medical attention:
fever
severe pelvic pain
sudden pain, especially if you may be pregnant
foul-smelling vaginal discharge


Diagnosis
When trying to find out what the underlying cause of painful menstruation is, your doctor will likely take your medical history and perform a physical exam. This will include a pelvic exam to check for any abnormalities in your reproductive system and to look for signs of infection.
If your doctor thinks an underlying disorder is causing your symptoms, they may perform imaging tests. These can include:
an ultrasound
CT scan
an MRI
Depending on the results of your imaging tests, your doctor may order alaparoscopy. This is a test in which a doctor makes small incisions in the abdomen into which they insert a fiber-optic tube with a camera at the end to see inside your abdominal cavity.




Medical treatment
If at-home treatment doesn’t relieve your menstrual pain, medical treatment options exist.
Treatment will depend on the severity and underlying cause of your pain. If PID or sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are causing your pain, your doctor will prescribe antibiotics to clear the infection.
Your doctor may also prescribe medications that include:
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). You can find these drugs over the counter or get prescription-strength NSAIDs from your doctor.
Other pain relievers. This includes over-the-counter options likeacetaminophen (Tylenol) or strongerprescription pain medications.
Antidepressants. Antidepressantsare sometimes prescribed to help lessen some of the mood swings associated with PMS.
Your doctor may also suggest that you tryhormonal birth control. Hormonal birth control is available as a pill, patch, vaginal ring, injection, implant, or IUD. Hormones prevent ovulation, which can control your menstrual cramps.
Surgery can treat endometriosis or uterine fibroids. This is an option if other treatments haven’t been successful. The surgery removes any endometriosis implants, uterine fibroids, or cysts.
In rare cases, a hysterectomy (the surgical removal of the uterus) is an option if other treatments haven’t worked and pain is severe. If you have a hysterectomy you will no longer be able to have children. This option is usually only used if someone isn’t planning on having children or is at the end of their childbearing years.About dysmenorrhea
Menstruation occurs when the uterus sheds its lining once a month. Some pain, cramping, and discomfort during menstrual periods is normal. Excessive pain that causes you to miss work or school is not.
Painful menstruation is also called dysmenorrhea. There are two types of dysmenorrhea: primary and secondary.
Primary dysmenorrhea occurs in people who experience pain before and during menstruation. If you’ve had normal periods that become painful later in life, it may be secondary dysmenorrhea. A condition affecting the uterus or other pelvic organs, such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids, can cause this.



What are the causes?
It’s not always possible to identify the cause of painful menstrual periods. Some people are just at a higher risk of having painful periods.
These risks include:
being under age 20
having a family history of painful periods
smoking
having heavy bleeding with periods
having irregular periods
never having had a baby
reaching puberty before age 11
A hormone called prostaglandin triggers muscle contractions in your uterus that expel the lining. These contractions can cause pain and inflammation. The level of prostaglandin rises right before menstruation begins.
Painful menstrual periods can also be the result of an underlying medical condition, such as:
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). PMS is a common condition that’s caused by hormonal changes in the body occurring 1 to 2 weeks before menstruation begins. Symptoms typically go away after bleeding begins.
Endometriosis. This is a painful medical condition in which cells from the lining of the uterus grow in other parts of the body, usually on the fallopian tubes, ovaries, or tissue lining the pelvis.
Fibroids in the uterus. Fibroids are noncancerous tumors that can put pressure on the uterus or cause abnormal menstruation and pain, though they often don’t cause symptoms.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID is an infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries often caused by sexually transmitted bacteria that cause inflammation of the reproductive organs and pain.
Adenomyosis. This is a rare condition in which the uterine lining grows into the muscular wall of the uterus, causing inflammation, pressure, and pain. It can also cause longer or heavier periods.
Cervical stenosis. Cervical stenosis is a rare condition in which the cervix is so small or narrow that it slows menstrual flow, causing an increase of pressure inside the uterus that causes pain.


HEALTHLINE RESOURCES
Take our free 3-question diet quiz
Our free assessment ranks the best diets for you based on your answers to 3 quick questions.
FIND YOUR DIETS

Home treatment
At-home treatments can be helpful in relieving painful menstrual periods. Types of things to try at home include:
using a heating pad on your pelvic area or back
massaging your abdomen
taking a warm bath
doing regular physical exercise
eating light, nutritious meals
practicing relaxation techniques or yoga
taking anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen several days before you expect your period
taking vitamins and supplementssuch as:vitamin B-6
vitamin B-1
vitamin E
omega-3 fatty acids
calcium
magnesium
raising your legs or lying with your knees bent
reducing your intake of salt, alcohol, caffeine, and sugar toprevent bloating


When to call a doctor
If menstrual pain is interfering with your ability to perform basic tasks each month, it may be time to talk to a gynecologist.
Talk to your doctor about your symptoms and if you experience any of the following:
continuing pain after IUD placement
at least three painful menstrual periods
passing blood clots
cramping accompanied by diarrhea and nausea
pelvic pain when not menstruating
Sudden cramping or pelvic pain could be signs of infection. An untreated infection can cause scar tissue that damages the pelvic organs and may lead to infertility.
If you have symptoms of an infection, seek prompt medical attention:
fever
severe pelvic pain
sudden pain, especially if you may be pregnant
foul-smelling vaginal discharge


Diagnosis
When trying to find out what the underlying cause of painful menstruation is, your doctor will likely take your medical history and perform a physical exam. This will include a pelvic exam to check for any abnormalities in your reproductive system and to look for signs of infection.
If your doctor thinks an underlying disorder is causing your symptoms, they may perform imaging tests. These can include:
an ultrasound
CT scan
an MRI
Depending on the results of your imaging tests, your doctor may order alaparoscopy. This is a test in which a doctor makes small incisions in the abdomen into which they insert a fiber-optic tube with a camera at the end to see inside your abdominal cavity.




Medical treatment
If at-home treatment doesn’t relieve your menstrual pain, medical treatment options exist.
Treatment will depend on the severity and underlying cause of your pain. If PID or sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are causing your pain, your doctor will prescribe antibiotics to clear the infection.
Your doctor may also prescribe medications that include:
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). You can find these drugs over the counter or get prescription-strength NSAIDs from your doctor.
Other pain relievers. This includes over-the-counter options likeacetaminophen (Tylenol) or strongerprescription pain medications.
Antidepressants. Antidepressantsare sometimes prescribed to help lessen some of the mood swings associated with PMS.
Your doctor may also suggest that you tryhormonal birth control. Hormonal birth control is available as a pill, patch, vaginal ring, injection, implant, or IUD. Hormones prevent ovulation, which can control your menstrual cramps.
Surgery can treat endometriosis or uterine fibroids. This is an option if other treatments haven’t been successful. The surgery removes any endometriosis implants, uterine fibroids, or cysts.
In rare cases, a hysterectomy (the surgical removal of the uterus) is an option if other treatments haven’t worked and pain is severe. If you have a hysterectomy you will no longer be able to have children. This option is usually only used if someone isn’t planning on having children or is at the end of their childbearing years.About dysmenorrhea
Menstruation occurs when the uterus sheds its lining once a month. Some pain, cramping, and discomfort during menstrual periods is normal. Excessive pain that causes you to miss work or school is not.
Painful menstruation is also called dysmenorrhea. There are two types of dysmenorrhea: primary and secondary.
Primary dysmenorrhea occurs in people who experience pain before and during menstruation. If you’ve had normal periods that become painful later in life, it may be secondary dysmenorrhea. A condition affecting the uterus or other pelvic organs, such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids, can cause this.



What are the causes?
It’s not always possible to identify the cause of painful menstrual periods. Some people are just at a higher risk of having painful periods.
These risks include:
being under age 20
having a family history of painful periods
smoking
having heavy bleeding with periods
having irregular periods
never having had a baby
reaching puberty before age 11
A hormone called prostaglandin triggers muscle contractions in your uterus that expel the lining. These contractions can cause pain and inflammation. The level of prostaglandin rises right before menstruation begins.
Painful menstrual periods can also be the result of an underlying medical condition, such as:
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). PMS is a common condition that’s caused by hormonal changes in the body occurring 1 to 2 weeks before menstruation begins. Symptoms typically go away after bleeding begins.
Endometriosis. This is a painful medical condition in which cells from the lining of the uterus grow in other parts of the body, usually on the fallopian tubes, ovaries, or tissue lining the pelvis.
Fibroids in the uterus. Fibroids are noncancerous tumors that can put pressure on the uterus or cause abnormal menstruation and pain, though they often don’t cause symptoms.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID is an infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries often caused by sexually transmitted bacteria that cause inflammation of the reproductive organs and pain.
Adenomyosis. This is a rare condition in which the uterine lining grows into the muscular wall of the uterus, causing inflammation, pressure, and pain. It can also cause longer or heavier periods.
Cervical stenosis. Cervical stenosis is a rare condition in which the cervix is so small or narrow that it slows menstrual flow, causing an increase of pressure inside the uterus that causes pain.


HEALTHLINE RESOURCES
Take our free 3-question diet quiz
Our free assessment ranks the best diets for you based on your answers to 3 quick questions.
FIND YOUR DIETS

Home treatment
At-home treatments can be helpful in relieving painful menstrual periods. Types of things to try at home include:
using a heating pad on your pelvic area or back
massaging your abdomen
taking a warm bath
doing regular physical exercise
eating light, nutritious meals
practicing relaxation techniques or yoga
taking anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen several days before you expect your period
taking vitamins and supplementssuch as:vitamin B-6
vitamin B-1
vitamin E
omega-3 fatty acids
calcium
magnesium
raising your legs or lying with your knees bent
reducing your intake of salt, alcohol, caffeine, and sugar toprevent bloating


When to call a doctor
If menstrual pain is interfering with your ability to perform basic tasks each month, it may be time to talk to a gynecologist.
Talk to your doctor about your symptoms and if you experience any of the following:
continuing pain after IUD placement
at least three painful menstrual periods
passing blood clots
cramping accompanied by diarrhea and nausea
pelvic pain when not menstruating
Sudden cramping or pelvic pain could be signs of infection. An untreated infection can cause scar tissue that damages the pelvic organs and may lead to infertility.
If you have symptoms of an infection, seek prompt medical attention:
fever
severe pelvic pain
sudden pain, especially if you may be pregnant
foul-smelling vaginal discharge


Diagnosis
When trying to find out what the underlying cause of painful menstruation is, your doctor will likely take your medical history and perform a physical exam. This will include a pelvic exam to check for any abnormalities in your reproductive system and to look for signs of infection.
If your doctor thinks an underlying disorder is causing your symptoms, they may perform imaging tests. These can include:
an ultrasound
CT scan
an MRI
Depending on the results of your imaging tests, your doctor may order alaparoscopy. This is a test in which a doctor makes small incisions in the abdomen into which they insert a fiber-optic tube with a camera at the end to see inside your abdominal cavity.




Medical treatment
If at-home treatment doesn’t relieve your menstrual pain, medical treatment options exist.
Treatment will depend on the severity and underlying cause of your pain. If PID or sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are causing your pain, your doctor will prescribe antibiotics to clear the infection.
Your doctor may also prescribe medications that include:
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). You can find these drugs over the counter or get prescription-strength NSAIDs from your doctor.
Other pain relievers. This includes over-the-counter options likeacetaminophen (Tylenol) or strongerprescription pain medications.
Antidepressants. Antidepressantsare sometimes prescribed to help lessen some of the mood swings associated with PMS.
Your doctor may also suggest that you tryhormonal birth control. Hormonal birth control is available as a pill, patch, vaginal ring, injection, implant, or IUD. Hormones prevent ovulation, which can control your menstrual cramps.
Surgery can treat endometriosis or uterine fibroids. This is an option if other treatments haven’t been successful. The surgery removes any endometriosis implants, uterine fibroids, or cysts.
In rare cases, a hysterectomy (the surgical removal of the uterus) is an option if other treatments haven’t worked and pain is severe. If you have a hysterectomy you will no longer be able to have children. This option is usually only used if someone isn’t planning on having children or is at the end of their childbearing years.

SCABIES AND IT CURE

this leave is very powerful for curing disease called scabies, it water when touch to an affected place it cure it , this leave has cure many scabies , many people has give testimonies about the wonderful work of this herb
HOW TO USE IT
take the leave and rub it to any affected place and make the water of the leave touches to the affected place , do it three time a day and see it wounderful work.
WHAT YOU HAVE TO KNOW ABOUT SCABIES

 on your penis, you could have scabies. Microscopic mites called Sarcoptes scabiei cause scabies.
Keep reading to learn more about this highly contagious condition.


What are the symptoms of scabies on the penis?
Scabies on the penis can cause intense itchiness in your genital area along with tiny, raised pimple-like bumps on and around your penis and scrotum. A scabies rash begins to appear four to six weeks after becoming infested with these tiny mites.
Intense itching is one of the main symptoms of scabies. It occurs because of the mites reproducing on the surface of your skin and then burying themselves into your skin and laying eggs. This also causes a rash that looks like tiny pimples. The rash results from your body’s allergic reaction to the mites on your skin. And you may see tracks left on your skin where they bury themselves.
The intense itching can cause you to scratch excessively. This can result in secondary skin infections from scratching too much. The itching can worsen at nighttime.


How can you catch scabies?
Scabies can spread quickly and is highly contagious. It’s primarily spread through skin-to-skin contact. Sexual contact and having multiple partners can result in one of the partners spreading the disease.
You can also catch scabies through contact with infected clothing and bedding, but this is a less common. Scabies doesn’t transfer from animals to humans—only through human-to-human contact.



What are the risk factors?
You have an increased risk for scabies on your penis if you have sexual intercourse or intimate contact with someone who has the disease. Having multiple sexual partners will also increase your risk.
Poor hygiene isn’t a risk factor for scabies. However, poor hygiene can worsen the rash by increasing your risk for bacterial infections resulting from scratching.

How is scabies diagnosed?
Your doctor will perform a physical exam to determine if the rash is scabies. Your doctor may take a small skin sample by scraping the surface of your penis. Your doctor will then send the sample for review under a microscope to confirm if mites and eggs are present. Other conditions that may be confused with scabies include:
contact dermatitis
eczema
folliculitis
flea bites
lice
syphilis
chancroid

PLANT’S MEDICINE

Medically reviewed by Debra Rose Wilson, PhD, MSN, RN, IBCLC, AHN-BC, CHT on February 28, 2019 — Written by Shelby Deering

Nature’s 9 Most Powerful Medicinal Plants and the Science Behind Them

9 most powerful plants for medicine

We scoured through histories of herbal studies for you

Today, we live in a time when manufactured medicines and prescriptions prevail, but do they have to be the only approach to healing?

Even with all of these engineered options at our fingertips, many people find themselves turning back to the medicinal plants that started it all: Herbal remedies that have the ability to heal and boost physical and mental well-being.

In fact, at the beginning of the 21st century, 11 percentTrusted Source of the 252 drugs considered “basic and essential” by the World Health Organization were “exclusively of flowering plant origin.” Drugs like codeine, quinine, and morphine all contain plant-derived ingredients.

While these manufactured drugs have certainly become paramount in our lives, it can be comforting to know that the power of nature is on our side, and these herbal choices are available to complement our health practices.

But the extent of the power they hold is also still being explored. These alternatives aren’t cure-alls, and they aren’t perfect. Many carry the same risks and side effects as manufactured medicines. Many of them are sold with unfounded promises.

However, many herbs and teas offer harmless subtle ways to improve your health. Pay attention to what the evidence says about each herb’s effectiveness as well as potential interactions or safety issues. Avoid using herbs for infants and children and for those who are pregnant and breastfeeding. Most herbs haven’t been tested for safety for those who are vulnerable, and trying herbs isn’t worth the risk.

With this cautionary tale in mind, choosing the right plant can seem difficult to someone who simply wants to feel better without taking medication. That’s why, with the help of specialist Debra Rose Wilson, we’re looking at the most effective and therapeutic plants — which have strong scientific evidence to support their safe use.

Making decisions about herbs along with more traditional medicinal approaches is something you and your healthcare practitioner can address together. At times, Wilson notes, ingesting the plants can have even less risk than taking concentrated, manufactured supplements, as there’s more risk of contamination of the product with the manufacture processes. It’s a wonderful way to experience their effects and the satisfaction of growing them yourself. Herbs can also be a way to add a needed nutrient.

However, both plants and supplements, which aren’t regulated by the Food and Drug Administration for safety or quality, can have questionable dosage and might have a risk of contamination. Keep this in mind before choosing supplements from the shelf.

If you’d like to add some medicinal plants to your wellness regimen, Wilson sifted through the latest studies and provides her own ratings system for our list.

These plants have the most numerous high-quality studies and are the safer choices among herbal remedies. She’s marked “0” as unsafe with no research, and “5” as completely safe with ample research. Many of these plants are somewhere between 3 and 4, according to Wilson.

We hope this guide will act as a starting point to those who wish to integrate herbal remedies into their lives and arrive armed with knowledge. As always, speak with your doctor before starting any new health treatment.

Gingko

most powerful plants

Rating

Safety: 3/5

Evidence: 3.5/5

As one of the oldest tree species, gingko is also one of the oldest homeopathic plants and a key herb in Chinese medicine. The leaves are used to create capsules, tablets, and extracts, and when dried, can be consumed as a tea.

It’s perhaps best-known for its ability to boost brain health. Studies say that gingko can treat patients with mild to moderate dementiaTrusted Source, and can slow cognition decline in dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

Recent research is looking into a component that can help diabetes, and there continue to be more studies, including an animal study that says it might influence bone healing.

INTERESTING FACTThe gingko tree is considered a living fossil, with fossils dating from 270 million years ago. These trees can live up to 3,000 years.

Gingko could be beneficial for:

  • dementia
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • eye health
  • inflammation
  • diabetes
  • bone healing
  • anxiety
  • depression

Things to consider

  • Long-term use may increase chance of thyroid and liver cancer, which has been seen in rats.
  • It’s known to be hard on the liver, so liver enzymes may need to be monitored.
  • It can interact with blood thinners.
  • Gingko seeds are poisonous if ingested.
  • Side effects can include headache, upset stomach, dizziness, and allergic reaction.
  • Gingko use needs to be discussed with your doctor because of numerous drug interactions.

Turmeric

turmeric

Rating

Safety: used as an herb: 5/5; used as a supplement: 4/5

Evidence: 3/5

With its brilliant orange hue, it’s impossible to miss a bottle of turmeric sitting on a spice shelf. Originating in India, turmeric is believed to have anticancer properties and can prevent DNA mutations.

As an anti-inflammatory, it can be taken as a supplement and it’s been used topically for people with arthritis who wish to relieve discomfort. It’s used worldwide as a cooking ingredient, which makes it a delicious, antioxidant-richTrusted Source addition to many dishes.

According to recent research, turmeric is also showing promise as a treatment for a variety of dermatologic diseases and joint arthritisTrusted Source.

INTERESTING FACTTurmeric has been used as a medicinal herb for 4,000 years. It’s a tentpole of an Indian alternative medicine practice called Ayurveda.

Turmeric could be beneficial for:

  • pain caused by inflammatory diseases, like arthritis
  • preventing cancer
  • stopping DNA mutations
  • several skin diseases

Things to consider

  • When used as a supplement, people tend to take too much, so it can be difficult to trust the dosage and quality. Safety increases when ingested as an herb in cooking or tea.
  • Long-term use can potentially cause stomach problems.
  • Turmeric has low bioavailability. Consuming with pepper can help your body absorb more of its benefits.

Evening primrose oil

evening primrose oil

Rating

Safety: topically: 4.5/5; orally: 3/5

Evidence: 3/5

The vibrant yellow evening primrose flower produces an oil that’s thought to alleviate the symptoms of PMS and skin conditions like eczema.

Studies that are available on this oil tend to be all over the map, but there are studies that are stronger than others. For example, some studies have found that evening primrose oil has anti-inflammatory properties. It’s been known to help with conditions such as atopic dermatitis and diabetic neuropathyTrusted Source. It can also help with other health concerns, such as breast pain.

Recent research points to improving the quality of life for patients with multiple sclerosisTrusted Source, changing hormones and insulin sensitivity in those dealing with polycystic ovary syndrome, and using it topically to improve mild dermatitis.

According to these studies, evening primrose oil might just be the Swiss Army knife of the medicinal plant world. The caveat is that it can interact with several medications. More research is coming, and the applications are promising.

INTERESTING FACTEvening primrose flowers are also called moonflowers because they bloom as the sun begins to set. People often say they smell like lemons.

Evening primrose oil could be beneficial for:

  • PMS
  • mild skin conditions
  • breast pain
  • menopause
  • inflammation
  • diabetic neuropathy
  • multiple sclerosis
  • PCOS
  • blood pressure

Things to consider

  • interacts with some blood-clotting medications
  • safety during pregnancy is uncertain
  • may interfere with drug absorption during HIV treatment
  • interacts with lithium for bipolar disorder
  • long-term use may not be safe

Flax seed

flax seed

Rating

Safety: 4.5/5

Evidence: 3.5/5

Flax seed, also available as an oil, is one of the safer choices among plant-based dietary supplements. Harvested for thousands of years, today flax seed is praised for its antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory benefits.

Although more research needs to be done with human subjects, one study says that flax seed can help prevent colon cancer.

Another studyTrusted Source cites that flax seed has the ability to reduce blood pressure. When consumed, it can even aid in reducing obesity. Many people add flax seed and flaxseed meal to oatmeal and smoothies, and it’s also available in the form of tablets, oil (which can be put into capsules), and flour.

The best way to add flax seed is through your diet. Sprinkle ground seeds on cereal or salad, cook in hot cereal, stew, homemade breads, or smoothies. Add flaxseed oil to salad dressing.

INTERESTING FACTFlax seeds are one of a handful of plant-based sources for omega-3 fatty acids. Other sources include chia seeds, walnuts, and soybeans.

Flax seed could be beneficial for:

  • decreasing obesity
  • regulating blood pressure
  • preventing colon cancer
  • inflammation
  • hot flashes

Things to consider

  • Flax seed can affect estrogen production in women, especially if they have a history of cancer or are pregnant.
  • Don’t eat raw or unripe flax seeds, as they can be toxic.

Tea tree oil

tea tree oil

Rating

Safety: 4/5

Evidence: 3/5

The tea tree, which is native to Australia, produces an oil that’s long been thought to be beneficial for skin conditions, including mild acne, athlete’s foot, small wounds, dandruff, insect bites, and other inflammatory skin conditions.

There needs to be further study into acne and scalp use, but for now, there’s a degree of research into the antimicrobial superpowers of tea tree oil on wounds and topical infections.

One recent study said that tea tree oil slowed the growth of acne-causing microbes. It’s commonly used as a highly concentrated essential oil.

Wilson recommends that tea tree oil, as with all essential oils, should be diluted in a carrier oil. She adds that it often already comes diluted in a variety of skin care products and creams.

INTERESTING FACTTea tree oil is derived from the leaves of a tree that’s native to Queensland and New South Wales, Australia.

Tea tree oil could be beneficial for:

  • acne
  • athlete’s foot
  • cuts
  • dandruff
  • insect bites

Things to consider

  • Tea tree oil is poisonous if taken orally.
  • Your skin could experience an allergic reaction.
  • It may influence hormones.
  • Long-term use isn’t recommended.

Echinacea

echinacea

Rating

Safety: 4.5/5

Evidence: 3.5/5

Echinacea is a lot more than those pretty, purple coneflowers you see dotting gardens. These blooms have been used for centuries as medicine in the form of teas, juice, and extracts. Today, they can be taken as powders or supplements.

The best-known use of echinacea is to shorten symptoms of the common coldTrusted Source, but more studies are needed to verify this benefit and to understand how echinacea boosts immunity when a virus is present.

Generally, save a few potential side effects, echinacea is relatively safe. Even though it needs more testing, you can always choose to use it if you’re hoping to see your cold symptoms end more quickly.

INTERESTING FACTSome of the earliest people to use echinacea as a medicinal herb were Native Americans. The first archaeological evidence dates back to the 18th century.

Echinacea could be beneficial for:

  • colds
  • immunity
  • bronchitis
  • upper respiratory infections

Things to consider

  • It can be tough on the digestive tract and upset the stomach.
  • Allergic reactions are possible.

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Grapeseed extract

grapeseed extract

Rating

Safety: 4.5/5

Evidence: 3.5/5

For years, grapeseed extract, which is available via liquid, tablets, or capsules, has been well-established and applauded for its antioxidant activity. It has potent health benefits, including lowering LDL (bad) cholesterol and reducing symptoms of poor circulation in the leg veins.

StudiesTrusted Source are confirming that regular consumption of grapeseed extract has anticancer effects and seems to halt cancer cell growth.

INTERESTING FACTGrapeseed extract contains the same antioxidants found in wine.

Grapeseed extract could be beneficial for:

  • cancer
  • lowering LDL (bad) cholesterol
  • leg vein circulation
  • edema
  • blood pressure

Things to consider

  • Proceed with caution if you take blood thinners or blood pressure medications, or if you’re about to go in for surgery.
  • It may reduce iron absorption.

Lavender

lavender

Rating

Safety: 4/5

Evidence: 3.5/5

If you experience anxiety, chances are that someone along the way has recommended that you use lavender essential oil, and for good reason. This aromatic, purple flower has a fairly strong standing among studies, which have mainly focused on its anti-anxiety capacities.

It’s proven to be soothing in a study conducted among dental patients, while another study confirmed that lavender can directly impact mood and cognitive performance. It’s also been commended for its sedative properties to help people get much-needed sleep.

Recently, it’s been discovered that lavender carries anti-inflammatory benefits as well. It’s most effective diluted and applied to the skin or used in aromatherapy, and it has few side effects.

INTERESTING FACTLavender was first brought to Provence, France, by the Romans 2,000 years ago.

Lavender could be beneficial for:

  • anxiety
  • stress
  • blood pressure
  • migraine

Things to consider

  • It can cause skin irritation.
  • It’s poisonous if taken orally.
  • It may disrupt hormones when applied undiluted.

Chamomile

chamomile

Rating

Safety: 4/5

Evidence: 3.5/5

With flowers that resemble small daisies, chamomile is another medicinal plant that’s thought to have anti-anxiety properties. Most people know it because it’s a popular tea flavor (one reviewTrusted Source says that over 1 million cups per day are consumed around the world), but it can also be ingested through liquids, capsules, or tablets.

The calming powers of chamomile have been frequently studied, including a 2009 studyTrusted Source that states chamomile is superior to taking a placebo when treating generalized anxiety disorder. One recent study confirmed it’s safe for long-term use, and another recent study looked beyond its use for anxiety and confirmed that it also shows potential in anticancer treatments.

INTERESTING FACTThere are two types of chamomile: German chamomile, an annual that thrives in the Midwest, and Roman chamomile, a perennial that attracts pollinators and smells like apples.

Chamomile could be beneficial for:

  • anxiety
  • stress
  • insomnia
  • cancer

Things to consider

  • It can cause allergic reactions. There’ve been reports of anaphylaxis.
  • It can interact with blood thinners.

IMPORTANT OF FOOD

NUTRITION

Evidence Based

Can Food Act as Medicine? All You Need to Know

What you choose to eat has profound effects on your overall health.

Research shows that dietary habits influence disease risk. While certain foods may trigger chronic health conditions, others offer strong medicinal and protective qualities.

Thus, many people argue that food is medicine.

Yet, diet alone cannot and should not replace medicine in all circumstances. Although many illnesses can be prevented, treated, or even cured by dietary and lifestyle changes, many others cannot.

This article explains the medicinal effects of food, including which foods should and shouldn’t be used for healing.

Food as Medicine

How food nourishes and protects your body

Many nutrients in food promote health and protect your body from disease.

Eating whole, nutritious foods is important because their unique substances work synergistically to create an effect that can’t be replicated by taking a supplement.

Vitamins and minerals

Although your body only needs small amounts of vitamins and minerals, they’re vital for your health.

However, Western diets — high in processed foods and low in whole foods like fresh produce — are typically deficient in vitamins and minerals. Such deficiencies can substantially increase your risk of disease (1Trusted Source).

For example, insufficient intakes of vitamin C, vitamin D, and folate may harm your heart, cause immune dysfunction, and increase your risk of certain cancers, respectively (2Trusted Source3Trusted Source4Trusted Source).

Beneficial plant compounds

Nutritious foods, including vegetables, fruits, beans, and grains, boast numerous beneficial compounds, such as antioxidants.

Antioxidants protect cells from damage that may otherwise lead to disease (5Trusted Source).

In fact, studies demonstrate that people whose diets are rich in polyphenol antioxidants have lower rates of depression, diabetes, dementia, and heart disease (6Trusted Source7Trusted Source8Trusted Source9Trusted Source).

Fiber

Fiber is an essential part of a healthy diet. It not only promotes proper digestion and elimination but also feeds the beneficial bacteria in your gut (10Trusted Source).

Thus, high-fiber foods like vegetables, beans, grains, and fruits help protect against disease, decrease inflammation, and boost your immune system (11Trusted Source).

On the other hand, low-fiber diets are associated with an increased risk of illnesses, including colon cancer and stroke (1213Trusted Source14Trusted Source15Trusted Source).

Protein and healthy fats

The protein and fat in whole, nutritious foods play various critical roles in your body.

Amino acids — the building blocks of protein — aid immune function, muscle synthesis, metabolism, and growth, while fats provide fuel and help absorb nutrients (16Trusted Source17Trusted Source).

Omega-3 fatty acids, which are found in foods like fatty fish, help regulate inflammation and are linked to improved heart and immune health (18Trusted Source).

HOME REMEDIES

Rocasea is a skin disease, particularly occurring on your face that starts with redness. Also, known as acne rocasea, it is seen on cheeks and nose along with firm red nodules resembling acne. Some symptoms of this problem are burning and stinging feeling, red gritty eyes and rhinophyma.

The prime cause behind the rocasea is unidentified bacteria or fungi that affect the hair follicles, also genetic skin problems can lead to rocasea. Especially, this skin disease is common amongst people living in the hot weather or excessive sun exposure, and consumes hot beverages or spicy foods excessively.

Below given are some home remedies that work effectively in curing rocasea.

Cucumber Mask

Fresh cucumber is always welcomed to treat any skin problems in the field of home remedies. Consequently you can prepare cucumber mask by blending fresh cucumber and apply it on your face. Rinse with cool water after 30 minutes of application. Using a month daily, you can see the result.

Apple Mask

Brown apple can be one of the best guide for your skin as natural remedies. Transform your apple in a smooth and tendered face pack to apply on your affected area. Rinse after the pack dries. It is recommended to use this pack every day to get the proper result.

Aloevera

Aloevera is another well known natural ingredient to fight against the disease of rocasea. Either you can use it on your face as pack or you can intake aloevera orally to reduce rocasea. Both forms are quiet effective.

Oatmeal

Oatmeal is also useful in treating rocasea. Oatmeal can assist you to reduce the redness of your face as well as itching sensation. You need to dilute 2 tablespoons of oatmeal in little quantity of water and then apply on the affected area of rocasea.

Chamomile Compress

Chamomile oil is regarded as one of the natural oil to reduce rocasea. You can keep this oil in fridge and then with a dampen fabric apply on your face to flare up the symptoms of rocasea.

Green Tea

If you have rosacea, washing your face regularly with green tea will help immensely. You can also rub the extract of green tea on the affected areas as the herb has anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties that cures rosacea. Green tea can be simply used as a compress as well.

HEALT DEFINITION

Biology > Why Do We Fall ill? > Health and Its SignificanceWhy Do We Fall ill?

Health and Its Significance

Do you like it when you have a fever and can’t go out to play? Of course not! No one likes being sick! However, despite trying our best, at times we do fall sick! It could be because of a change in the weather or any specific virus. You can never predict. But, the absence of diseasesalso doesn’t mean that you are healthy! In this chapter, we will look at the concept of the importance of health for our well-being. But, before we proceed, do you know why good health is important?

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Health & It’s Significance

Disease Types

Why is Good Health Important?

Cells are the fundamental units of all living organisms. They are made up of a variety of chemical substances. Cells move from place to place. Even if the cell is not moving, a lot of repairing still goes on within it. Besides this, there are various specialized activities in our body, like the heart pumps blood, the kidney filters the urine, the brain is constantly thinking, the lungs help in breathing.

This way, there is a lot of interconnectedness between the various organs in our body. For all these activities, our body needs energy and rawmaterial. Food is necessary for cell and tissue functioning. Therefore, if you are not well, all your bodily activities start getting hampered.

importance of health

Importance of Health

Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being. For a healthy life cycle, a person needs to have a balanced diet and has to regularly exercise. One must also live in a proper shelter, take enough sleep and have good hygiene habits. So, how do we ensure that we are doing all the right things to have a good health? Let’s spread the awareness for the importance of health:

  • The health of all organisms depends on their surrounding or their environment. Our social environment is an important factor in our individual health.
  • Public cleanliness is important for individual health. Therefore, we must ensure that we collect and clear the garbage regularly. We must also contact an agency who can take the responsibility of clearing the drains. Without this, you could severely affect your health.
  • We need food for health and for food, we will have to earn money by doing work. For this, the opportunity to do work has to be available. Good economic condition and jobs are, therefore, needed for individual health
  • We need to be happy in order to be truly healthy. If we mistreat each other and are afraid of each other, we cannot be healthy or happy. Social equality and harmony are important for individual health.

What is Disease?

When one or more organs or systems of our body are adversely affected as in their normal functioning is interrupted, we say that we are not healthy i.e., we have a disease. Disease means something is wrong with our body and that we feel unwell or malfunction of the body.Our health is affected not only by unbalanced diet but also by diseases, infections, poverty, large family, overcrowded houses etc. The diseases are normally caused by external organisms (microbes) intersecting the body’s natural barriers and invading into our healthy body. Such organisms can cause a havoc if our immune system doesn’t handle it right away.

 Solved Question for You

Q. Write a short note on the types of diseases.

Answer: Diseases are of two types:

  • Acute: These last for the only short period of time. These do not cause a long-term bad effect on human health. For example, cold, cough, typhoid, cholera etc. In acute diseases, the person gets better and becomes well within a week or so.
  • Chronic: These last for a long time even as much as a lifetime. For example, Tuberculosis, diabetes, arthritis, cancer etc